Where was Christoper Columbus from? What nation did he sail for?
What did the natives that Columbus first met call themselves? What did they call their island?
called the their island Guanahani
Define the 'Colombian Exchange'
Moving people and their ways of life between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, included people, animals, plants & germs. People from Europe, Africa, N& S America became intertwined in colonial societies, obligatory & forced labor relations, trade networks, religious missions & wars
What were some of the key innovations Portugal brought to long-distance sailing and navigation?
+ Ship builders added triangular Arab sails to their ships
+ Created a more maneuverable vessel, the caravel
+ compass & astrolabe
Key facts about Prince Henry "The Navigator"
• Gained support of merchants & encouraged Portuguese seamen to pilot new caravels southward along the African coast
• By the time of his death, Portugal was exporting gold & slaves from the South of Sahara
Which European first reached the Cape of Good Hope, and in what year?
• In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias reach the Cape of Good Hope
What is one thing Vasco da Gama is known for?
Vasco da Gama led the Portuguese fleet to India
What are the two basic forms of slavery?
1. African enslaved because of indebtedness whose debt was purchased by kings & emperors who made them servants or
2. long distance commercial trade
What was the relationship between Portuguese slave traders and African rulers?
• Portuguese mostly traded through African- controlled commercial networks
• African rulers traded according to own self-interest with gold for slaves (or visa versa)
• Some expanded their wealth & power that way
What characterized 'New Slavery'?
unprecedented magnitude: 12 million slaves subjected to new levels of de-humanization (plantation workers
+ race became an ideological basis
• Africans blackness + "alien" religions & customs dehumanized them in European eyes
• Racial prejudice hardened & Europeans justified enslaving blacks as their Christian duty
How did disease influence the growth of the slave trade?
• The Tainos & other N.A. in Caribbean died off in large numbers from small pox & measles & other imported diseases (no immunities)
• To replace natives, colonist brought enslaved Africans to perform labor
What was the 'Demarcation Line'?
• To forestall competition, Portugal & Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesailles which drew a line in the Mid-Atlantic dividing all future discoveries between the two countries
• In 1500, a Portuguese voyage headed to India found Brazil- most of which lay east of the line established in the Treaty of Tordesaillas
What are some key things to know about John Cabott?
Engaged by England's Henry VII for Atlantic voyage
1497: First European to land in and claim mainland N. America
England did little more about it for 60 years
How did the New World continents get their name?
• In 1507, the landmass got its name when a publisher brought out a collection of voyagers' tales
• One of the chroniclers was an Italian named Amerigo Vespucci - America became the name of the new continent
What are some key things to know about Ferdinand Magellan?
• Explorers still wanted to go past America to India
• Ferdinand Magellan (1519) sailed for Spain around S. America's southern tip (the Straight of Magellan is named for him)
• He died & only 1 of 5 ships & 15 sailors returned to Spain in 1522 after circumnavigating the globe
What did Europe impart to America as part of the Columbian Exchange?
horses, cattle, sheep, swine, chickens
Wheat & other grains, coffee, sugar, fruits, vegetables
Weeds, insects & rodents
What did America spread to Europe as part of the Columbian Exchange?
corn, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, pumpkins, Peanuts, vanilla, cacao, avocados, pineapples, chilies
Tobacco & turkeys
What did Africa impart to America as part of the Columbian Exchange?
slaves, rice & yams
Key facts about Cortez and the fall of the Aztecs
1519: Cortez led 600 troops to the Mexican coast
Used Aztec's enemies and discontented subjects to invade the capital, Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City)
Smallpox helped wipe out Aztec opposition
Key facts about Francisco Pizarro & Defeat of Incas
• The Inca empire fell between 1532 & 1536 from attacks by Francisco Pizarro
• Small pox & native unfamiliarity with European ways & weapons enabled a small army to overpower a mighty emperor
What are some key facts about Hernando DeSoto?
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador
Led the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States
1539-1543 blundered from Tampa Bay to the Appalachians (Southern Plains)
searching for gold and a passage to China.
expedition spread small pox, which destroyed most of the remaining Mississippi societies
Facts about Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
• 1540-42, de Coronado led an expedition to find and conquer rumored "cities of gold"
• Plundered several pueblos on the Rio Grande
• Found no gold & came back to Mexico
• After these failed adventures, Spain's main interest lay in keep out the French & British
What was the significance of St. Augustine?
• 1565, Spanish established the 1st lasting European post in N.A., a fortress in St. Augustine, Florida
• Remained a lone military stronghold despite plans to build a road with presidos at key locations from there to Mexico
grants awarding native labor to wealthy colonist in the Americas
What was 'New Spain'
• The area know as Mexico was New Spain, ruled by a viceroy
What were some early actions by the French in exploring North America?
In 1524, King Francis I dispatched a Italian navigator named Giovanni da Vertanzo to find a Northwest passage to the Pacific -- failed, like Cartier later
No NWest Passage or gold, but exploited other things
• Fur-trade blossomed for France
• Friendly w/ NA's—traded beads, etc.. for pelts
• Great Banks fishing (off the coast of Canada)
Early history of the Virginia Company of London
In 1606, James I granted a charter authorizing colonies
Virginia Company founded Jamestown
Struggled for survival -- bad planning
Native Powahatans wouldn't sell more crops after awhile
Tobacco emerged as the colony's cash generator
What was the 'head right'?
• To attract labor & capital, the Virginia Company awarded a 50 acre head right for each person entering the colony, to whoever paid that person's passage.
• By paying passage for potential laborers, people gained lots of land
• In return for passage & basic needs, people agreed to work as indentured servants for 4-7 years.
What are some early milestones of the Mayflower group?
Thomas Weston gained permission for a colony from the Virgina Company
Sailed in 1620, 24 families, 102 passengers
Half the colonists died in the first 4 months, and the survivors owed much to the natives
What was the 'Mayflower Compact'?
Agreement amongst the Mayflower's passengers for civil order
Claimed the land for King James
What are some key facts about deChamplain?
• French sent deChamplain to establish the colony of New France in Quebec in 1608
Key facts about Henry Hudson
• In 1609, Henry Hudson sailed up the river later named for him, traded w/ NA's & claimed the area for the Netherlands
• 1614, Dutch built Fort Nassau near Albany & established the colony of new Netherland
• 1626, local Munsee Indians allowed Dutch to settle on an island north of the Hudson
• The Dutch named this island Manhattan & the settlement New Amsterdam