(1533-1592) A French magistrate who resigned his office in the midst of the wars of religion to write about the need for tolerance. A catholic who emphasized skepticism and tolerance in religion and race.
(1530-1596) A French Catholic Lawyer who sought out the problem to disorder in his "Six Books of the Republic" He compared the different types of governments and decided that an absolute monarchy is necessary. (No matter how horrible a tyrant the ruler is.)
(1583-1645) A jurist who claimed natural law meant laws of nature that would exist without God or any authority figure. Catholics and Protestants despised his ideas and his book The Laws of War and Peace was condemned. He was arrested but escaped and supported by Louis XIII.
(1473-1543) A Polish clergyman who began the revolution in astronomy by publishing his treatise on The Revolution of the Celestial Spheres. He claimed the Earth and the planets revolved around the sun which had a simpler mathematical explanation.
(1546-1601) A Danish astronomer who designed and built new instruments for observing the heavens and trained many other astronomers. He rejected heliocentrism despite his discovery of a new star and comet that disproved Aristotle's theory.
(1571-1630) Assistant to Tycho Brahe who believed in the Copernican view. He continued Brahe's observations and created three laws of planetary motion published between 1609 and 1619. They provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and suggested that the planets orbits were ellipses.
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
The new calender ordered by Pope XIII who wanted the Easter Holiday to be celebrated at the correct time every year. It was very controversial and took a very long time to be adopted by all the countries. It is the calender we use today.
A combination of experimental observation and mathematical deduction to determine the laws of nature; it became the secular standard of truth and as such challenged the hold of all churches and popular beliefs.
The idea that the Earth and the planets revolve around the sun. It was previously believed that everything revolved around the Earth.
Discourse on Method
Written by Descartes, this argued that mathematical and mechanical principals provided the key to understanding all of nature. Emphasized the use of human reasoning, not just believing what you're told.
(1514-1564) A Flemish scientist who challenged traditional anatomy with his text "On the Construction of the Human Body." Created with numerous illustrations of public dissections.
(1493-1541) AKA Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. A professor of medicine at the University of Basel who burned the texts of Galen. He experimented with new drugs, performed operations, and helped establish the modern science of pharmacology.
(1578-1657) An Englishman who used dissection to examine the circulation of blood throughout the body and how the heart worked as a pump. He insisted the heart and its valves were a piece of machinery that obeyed mechanical laws.
(1561-1626) An English politician responsible for spreading the scientific method. Wrote The Advancement of Learning. (He claimed old authors were wrong because they were often monks and their texts were not based on observation of the outside world.)
(1596-1650) A French mathematician and philosopher responsible for spreading the scientific method. Wrote Discourse on Method. (Claimed that mathematical and mechanical principals provided the key to understanding all of nature.) Je pense, donc je suis.