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Bio 216

In the reaction (H2O + CO2 <---> H2CO3), increasing the concentration of H2O would
A. decrease the concentration of H2CO3.
B. increase the concentration of H2CO3.
C. increase the concentration of CO2.
D. have no effect on either CO2 or H2CO3 concentrations.

B. increase the concentration of H2CO3.

Energy transformations result in a(n) ______________ in entropy. A. increase B. decrease C. no change

A. increase

Oxidizing agents accept electrons from molecules undergoing reduction.
(t/f)

True

A reducing agent donates electrons to a molecule. (t/f)

True

Exergonic reactions proceed with the release of energy. (t/f)

True

A molecule that gains a hydrogen is also oxidized.(t/f)

False

Chemically reduced FAD has __________ extra hydrogen atom(s) bound to it.
A. one B. two C. three D. no

B. two

Oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has ______________ two hydrogens.
A. lost B. gained C. shared

A. lost

______________ is the opposite of glycogenesis.
A. Glycolysis
B. Glyconeogenesis
C. Glycogenolysis
D. Gluconeogenesis

C. Glycogenolysis

Glucose formed from amino acids comes from the process of glycogenolysis. (T/F)

False

The Cori cycle involves formation of glucose made by gluconeogenesis in the liver from lactic acid produced by fermentation in skeletal muscles. (T/F)

True

The majority of water within the body is found in the
A. intracellular compartment.
B. extracellular compartment.
C. blood plasma.
D. interstitial fluid

A. intracellular compartment.

The extracellular matrix is made up of collagen, elastin, and a gel-like ground substance. (T/F)

True

Active transport does not require the expenditure of energy. (T/F)

False

Proteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within the cell, through the plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix are
A. lysosomal proteins.
B. metallo proteins.
C. receptor proteins.
D. integrin proteins.

D. integrin proteins.

Passive transport of water is known as
A. filtration.
B. osmosis.
C. facilitated diffusion.
D. a water pump.

B. osmosis.

Dialysis uses the process of
A. facilitated diffusion.
B. primary active transport.
C. simple diffusion.
D. secondary active transport.

C. simple diffusion

The rate of diffusion increases as the concentration gradient increases. (T/F)

True

What type of intravenous fluid would be given to reduce edema?
A. hypertonic
B. isotonic
C. hypotonic

A. hypertonic

Protein carrier mediated transport of molecules display
A. specificity.
B. competition.
C. saturation.
D. All of these choices are correct

D. All of these choices are correct

Glucose can enter into the cell by facilitated diffusion or countertransport. (T/F)

F; fasc. diff or cotransport

Active transport carriers are also called
A. vesicles.
B. channels.
C. pumps.
D. receptors.

C. pumps

What type of functional complex will prohibit paracellular transport?
A. tight junctions
B. adherens junctions
C. desmosomes
D. gap junctions

A. tight junctions

Movement of large molecules into a cell is called
A. endocytosis.
B. exocytosis.
C. bulk transport.
D. Both A and C are correct.

D. Both A and C are correct

The charge difference across a membrane produces the membrane potential. (T/F)

True

The resting membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for
A. sodium ions.
B. chloride ions.
C. calcium ions.
D. potassium ions.

D. potassium ions.

Hyperkalemia would ____________ the resting membrane potential of the cell.
A. increase
B. decrease
C. have no effect on

B. decrease

A change in the concentration of any ion inside or outside the cell will change the resting potential. (T/F)

True

Which of the following is NOT a general category of cell signaling molecules?
A. endocrine signaling
B. enzymatic signaling
C. paracrine signaling
D. synaptic signaling

B. enzymatic signaling

Which of the following is NOT true of cyclic AMP?
A. It is found on the outside of a plasma membrane.
B. It is a second messenger for polar regulatory molecules.
C. It is made from ATP.
D. It activates enzymes inside a cell to produce the desired effect.

A. It is found on the outside of a plasma membrane.

Where is the receptor for a nonpolar, lipid-soluble regulatory molecule?
A. embedded in the outer surface of the plasma membrane
B. embedded in the inner surface of the plasma membrane
C. in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the cell
D. All of the choices are correct.

C. in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the cell

The brain and spinal cord comprise the
A. central nervous system.
B. peripheral nervous system.
C. peripheral ganglia.
D. spinal nerves.

A. central nervous system.

The study of how disease or injury alters physiological processes is termed

pathophysiology

Negative feedback results in a response that opposes that of the original stimulus. (t/f)

True

An integrating center sends information to a(n)

effector

The endocrine regulation of blood glucose concentration is an example of a(n)

both antagonistic effector and negative feedback loop

____ and ____ are often regulators of effectors in most feedback loops.

Hormones, nerves

A decrease in mean arterial pressure is detected by

a sensor

In positive feedback mechanisms, the action of an effector is

increased

The normal range of arterial blood pH is

7.35-7.45

Contraction of _______ muscle can be consciously controlled

skeletal

These muscle cells do NOT have a striated appearance

smooth muscle cells

The highly branched extensions of a neuron whose function is to receive input from other neurons or receptors cells are called

dendrites

Epithelial membranes that are more than one layer thick are called

stratified

Histological examination of a membrane shows several layers of keratinized flattened cells. This sample most likely came from

the epidermis of the skin

Specialized epithelial cells that line the urinary bladder that allow distention make up

transitional epithelium

____ glands secrete chemicals through a duct that leads to the outside of a membrane

exocrine

___ attach skeletal musckles to bones

tendons

Which type of connective tissue is characterized by a liquid extracellular matrix?

blood

Bone-forming cells are known as

osteoblasts

Which organ system is primarily involved in regulation of blood volume and composition?

urinary system

Tissues are groups of cells that have similar functions.(t/f)

true

Organs involved in carrying out related functions are grouped into systems (T/F)

true

Nervous tissue is specialized to produce and conduct electrical impulses (T/F)

true

One exocrine function of the skin is the synthesis and secretion of melanin from the sebaceous glands(T/F)

false

Enzymes ____ the rate of a specific chemical reaction.

increase

The rate at which a chemical reaction can be increased is by either _____ the temperature or _____ decreasing the activation energy.

increasing, decreasing

The substrate binds to the ______ of the enzymes.

active sites

Digestive enzymes which remove hydrogen atoms from their substrates are referred to as

dehydrogenases

Dehydration synthesis reactions are catalyzed by

synthases

In the reaction (h2o+co2--->h2co3), increasing the concentration of h2o would

increase the concentration of h2co3

Energy transormations result in an ____ in entropy.

increase

Energy transformations increase the entropy of a system is a statement of

the second law of thermodynamics

Energy can change forms, but cannot be created or destroyed is a statement of the

first law of thermodynamics

Free energy is _____ when exergonic reactions proceed.

decreased

A ____ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one cubic centimeter of water one degree on the Celsius scale.

calorie

_____ is the universal energy carrier.

ATP

NAD is derived from the vitamin

B-3, niacin

FAD is derived from vitamin

B-2, riboflavin

Chemically reduced FAD has ____ extra hydrogen atomes bound to it.

2

If NAD becomes reduced it is an

oxidizing agent

During oxidation, a molecule or atom

loses electrons.

During reduction, a molecule or atom

gains electrons.

FAD and NAD are coenzymes that act as ____ in bichemical reactions

hydrogen carriers

Catalysts increase reaction rates by lowering the activation energy of a reaction.(T/F)

true

Most enzymes are lipids. (T/F)

false

Active enzymes are often called zymogens. (T/F)

false

Another name for the first law of thermodynamics is hte law of conservation of energy. (T/F)

true

Oxidizing agents accept electrons from molecules undergoing reduction. (T/F)

true

Reducing agents donates electrons to a molecule. (T/F)

true

____ reactions require energy to synthesize large molecules from small molecules.

anabolic

Glycolysis converts glucose into two ___ moleclues.

pyruvic acid

Gycolysis results in a net gain of two ATP formed by direct ____of ADP molecules using phosphates taken from glycolytic intermediates.

phosphorylation

____ muscle is better adapted to anaerobic conditions than cardiac muscle.

skeletal

____ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration metabolism

red blood

What is the inadequate supply of blood to an organ called?

ischemia

The Cori cycle converts _____ to pyruvic acid

lactic acid

What type of tissue is especially dependent on adequate plasma glucose levels?

nervous

ATP formation in the electron transport system is called

oxidative phosphorylation

The actual yeild of ATP from 1 glucose is

30-32 ATP

Ther electron transport system is a series of ____ reactions.

oxidation-reduction

Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces

1 FADH2, 1ATP, and 3 NADH

Acetyl CoA is

generatied from pyruvate

Aerobic respiration

both uses glucose and generates water

Fatty acid metabolism

occurs via beta-oxidation

The majority of energy within the body is stored as triglycerides. (t/f)

true

How much of the total body water content is intracellular?

67%

Proteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within the cell, through the plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix are

integrin proteins

Osmosis and simple diffusion do NOT require the actions of carrier proteins. (t/f)

true

Active transport proceeds when energy is expended.(t/f)

true

____ is a term which describes a membrane that allows only certain molecules to penetrate it.

selectively permeable

Passive trasport of water is known as

osmosis

Simple diffusion is the net diffusion of a solvent. (t/f)

false

A solution consists of a ___ which dissolves the ____.

solvent, solute

The osmotic pressure of a solution is directly related to its ___ concentration

solute

Hyertonic solutions stimulate cellular lysis.

false

Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will

increase in volume

What type of intravenous fluid would be given to reduce edema?

hypertonic

Osmoreceptors are involved in the regulation of blood volume.

true

Facilitated diffusion of a molecule into a cell would be more rapid if

the concentration of the molecule outside the cell increased

The Na+/K+ pumps transport ___ into the cell and ___ out of the cell per cycle.

2K+, 3Na+

In secondary active transport, if the other substance is moved in the same direction as Na+, it is called

cotransport

Desmosomes are a type of junctional complex.

true

Bulk transport is required for the transport of large polar molecules into or out of cells.

true

The charge difference across a membrane produces the membrane potential.

true

The primary intracellular cation is

K+

Ther resting membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for

Potassium ions

Hyperkalemia would _____ the resting membrane potential of the cell.

decrease

Most cells have a resting membrane potential between

-65mV and -85mV

What is necessary for a target cell to respond to a cell signaling molecule?

specific receptor proteins

What molecules pass information from the polar regulatory molecule receptors to activate the enzymes that produce cAMP?

G-proteins

The brain and spinal cord comprises teh

central nervous system

Sensory neurons

are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS

The myelin sheaths of CNS neurons are produced by

oligodendrocytes

The myelin sheaths of the PNS neurons are produced by

schwann cells

Cells supporting neuron cell bodies in ganglia are termed

satelite cells

What structure is found around PNS axons that is NOT found around CNS axons?

neurilemma

The gap of exposed axon in the myelin sheath is the

node of Ravier

White matter is

myelinated axon in the CNS

Themost numerous of all cells of CNS nervous tissue are the

astrocytes

The membrane of resting nerve cells is more permeable to ___ ions than ____ ions

Potassium, sodium

Ion channels that open in response to depolarization are called

voltage-gated channels

During an action potential

Na+ influx causes depolarization

The mechanism that allows many Na+ ions to move into the axon is

positive feedback

An axon will depolarize only if the membrane potential reaches between -70mV and -55mV. This follows the _____

All-or-none law

The period of time when Na+ channels are recovering from their inactive state and K+ channels are still open is the

both repolarization and relative refractory period are correct.

Conduction of an action potential in a myelinated axon is called

saltatory conduction

Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are called

neurotransmitters

Both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials undergo dummation

true

Botulism toxin prevents release of Ach at the neuromuscular junction. This causes

flaccid paralysis

Neurotransmitter release would be inhibited by

blocking Ca2+ influx in the axon terminal

The binding of a NT to its receptor protein causes ion channels to open in the post-synaptic membrane. What type o fgates are these?

both chemicaly-regulated gates and ligand-regulated gates are correct

Acetylcholine usually induces an excitatory postsynaptic potential when binding to ___receptors and an inhibitory postsynaptic potential when binding to _____ receptors.

nicotinic, muscarinic

Cholinergic fibers use ____ as the neurotransmitter.

acetylcholine

Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid

tryptophan

The _____ dopamine system may be involved in emotional reward and drug addiction.

mesolimbic

Parkinson's disease is associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons.

true

The nicotinic Ach receptor is a ligand-gated channel.

true

A lack of extracellular Ca2+ would cause increased release of neurotransmitters

false

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