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Ch. 14, 15, 16, 17

Political Geography

the subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface

Political Culture

The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another.

Nation

a politically organized body of people under a single government

Nation-State

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

State

a politically organized body of people under a single government

Microstate

A state or territory that is small in both size and population.

Nationalism

a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country

Sovereignty

ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

Boundary

invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory

Boundary Delimination

The lines indicating where individuals are allowed to go.

Boundary Demarcation

The actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.

Enclaves

countries surrounded or almost surrounded by another country.

Exclaves

A bounded (nonisland) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.

Geometric Boundary

Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.

Physical-Political Boundary

boundary defined by a physical land mark like a river or a lake

Cultural-Political Boundary

boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity

Antecedent Boundary

a boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area...

Superimposed Boundary

a boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)...

Relict Boundary

A political boundary that has ceased to function but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape.

Geopolitics

study of government and its policies as affected by physical geography

Organic Theory

The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.

Heartland Theory

Hypotheses proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world

Rimland Theory

Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.

Centrifugal Force

Forces that tend to divide a country.

Centripetal Force

A force that causes an object to move in a circle

Colonialism

the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations

Core Area

the portion of a country that contains its economic, political, intellectual, and cultural focus.

Multicore Area

A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political or cultural.

Federal State

An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

Unitary State

An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

Forward Capital

Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory.

Electoral Geography

The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.

Gerrymander

To draw a district's boundaries to gain an advantage in elections

Supernationalism

when 3 or more countries join to form a union for economical or military reasons

Law of the Sea

laws establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's waters and their resources.

Truman Proclamation

Policy of the United States With Respect to the Natural Resources of the Subsoil and Sea Bed of the Continental Shelf

Median-line Principle

lines made to distribute water ways when states are within 200 miles of each other

International Sanctions

Actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it

Globalization

actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope

Devolution

the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality

Ethnonationalism

The identification and loyalty a person may feel for his or her nation.

Gateway State

A state that absorbs cultures and conditions without being dominated by them

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