A verbally based code (code refers to the way verbal info is stored in short-term memory)
the speech and sound related components responsible for rehearsal of verbal information and phonological processing
A simple three-letter stimulus was presented to the subject, followed by a three-digit number. Subjects were instructed firt to attend to the stimulus, then to begin counting backward by threes from the number they were shown. This counting was a distracter task designed to prevent rehearsal and prove that forgetting caused by decay.
In Alan Baddely's model of working memory, the component that integrates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial working memory, as well as material retrieved from long-term memory. This also plays a major role in planning and controlling behavior.
Grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units
The weakening and fading of memories with the passage of time. Idea which is widely discredited...forgetting is more likely caused by interference or by a combination of the two (decay+interference)
subjects recall the list of items in any order they wish. we often find that people recall items based on their semantic content rather than the item's order in the list. Items at the beginning and end of the list are often recalled with more accuracy than items in the middle of the list.
a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
proactive interference (PI)
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information
Describes relationships among processes. Sternberg (1969) proposed a simple flowchart of the four separat mental processes that occured during the timed portion of very trail.
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
Re-organizing or modifying information to assist storage in memory
A mental recycling system for holding information temporarily, Where short term memory is held and then disappear
release from PI
Occurs when the decline in performance caused by proactive interference is reversed because of a switch in the to-be-remembered stimuli
retroactive interference (RI)
Now information that interferes with remembering old information; backwards-acting interference.
serial exhaustive search
(Sternberg) The memory set is scanned one item at a time (serial), and the entire set is scanned on every trail, whether or not a match is found (exhaustive).
serial position curve
a u-shape pattern indicating the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle
subjects recall the list of items in their original order of presentation.
The first component of working memory; holds and manipulates visual images and spatial information, holds info in an analog spatial form while it is being used
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory adn visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory.
Participants first stored a short list of letters, called the memory set, in short-term memory. They then saw a suingle letter, the probe, and responded yes/no depending on twhether the probe item was among the letters in the memory set.