← EXAMS - WORLD CULTURES - RELIGIONS - ISLAM Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All al-fana In Arabic "extinction" The extinction of one's sense of separate existence before achieving union with Allah; the aim of Sufi mystics. caliphs In Arabic "successors" The military and political leaders of the Muslim community who succeeded Muhammad after his death. Five Pillars Specific religious and ethical requirements for Muslims: the confession of faith (Shahada), prayer or worship, fasting during Ramadan, wealth sharing, and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj). hajj The fifth of the Five Pillars; the journey to Mecca that all Muslims are to make at least once in their lifetime, if they can afford it and are physically able. hijra In Arabic "emigration" The emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib (thereafter called Medina) in AD 622; the founding event of the Muslim community. imam In Arabic "leader" The leader of the Friday worship service who directs the prayers and delivers a sermon. Imam For Shi'ism Islam, an early successor to Muhammad and leader of Islam (most Shi'is acknowledge twelve __________), believed to have special spiritual insight. jihad In Arabic "exertion" or "struggle" Sometimes counted as the sixth pillar of Islam, the general spiritual struggle to be a devout Muslim. In a more narrow context, __________ refers to armed struggle (holy war) for the sake of Islam, which the Qur'an supports only if it is carried out in self-defense. Ka'ba (kah'bah) The stone cubical structure in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca, believed to have been built by Abraham and regarded by Muslims as the sacred center of the earth. mosque The Muslim place or building of worship, traditionally including a prayer hall and courtyard, with towers called minarets at the corners. Qur'an In Arabic "recitation" Islam's primary sacred text, regarded by Muslims as the direct words of Allah, revealed to Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel. Ramadan The ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, a period during which Muslims fast, in accordance with the third of the Five Pillars. Shahada In Arabic "witnessing" The confession of faith, the first of the Five Pillars and central creedal statement of Islam: "There is no god except God. Muhammad is the messenger of God." Shari'a The divine law, derived from the Qur'an and the Sunna, encompassing all and setting forth in detail how Muslims are to live. shaykh A teacher and master in Islam, such as the leader of an order in Sufism. Shi'i "partisans of Ali" The division of Islam dominant in Iraq and Iran, originating as a result of an early dispute over leadership; distinguishable from Sunni Islam mainly by its figure of the Imam and strong messianic expectations. Sufi An adherent of Sufism, the form of Islam characterized by a mystical approach to Allah, who is experienced inwardly. Sunna In Arabic "custom" or "tradition" The teachings and actions of Muhammad recorded in writings known as hadith, which provide the model for being Muslim; Islam's second most important authority (after the Qur'an). Sunni The division of Islam practiced by most Muslims, named after the Sunna. Umma In Arabic "community" The community of all Muslims.