Ivan III (the Great)
Prince of the duchy of Moscow; responsible for freeing Russia from the Mongols; took the title of tsar. (tsar coming from the word caesar)
Russia, with Moscow as its capital, claimed to be the successor of the Roman and Byzantine empires.
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
Confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars; continued policy of expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture. (shows that the tsars power was questioned by the people of Russia)
Peasant adventurers with agricultural and military skills recruited to conquer and settle in newly seized lands in southern Russia and Siberia (Pioneers of Russia)
Time of Troubles
Early 17th-century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion after the death of Ivan IV without an heir; ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613. (shows that Russia as no long precedent for replacing lost ruler)
Ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov; many were exiled to southern Russia or Siberia.
Peter I (the Great)
Tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects of the economy and culture through imitation of western European models. (makes St.Petersburg into the new influential Russian city)
Baltic city that was made the new capital of Russia by Peter I.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina; combined selective Enlightenment ideas with strong centralizing policies; converted the nobility to a service aristocracy by granting them new power over the peasantry. (everyone is under the tsar and the peasants become equal to slaves)
Partition of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland. (Due to Polands weak parliament)
Unsuccessful peasant rising led by Cossack Pugachev during the 1770s; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and after (shows the oppression of serfs in Russia)
Process in which traditional cultures come under the influence of Western culture. (Catharine the Great and Peter the Great)
Institution in which a peasant is attached to a feudal estate. (serf in Russia=African America slave)