College Health Final Vocab/Key Terms

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Prenatal Care

Regular medical care during pregnancy, desinged to promote the health of the mother and the fetus.

Low birth weight

Birth weight of less that 5.5 pounds, often as a result of preterm delivery.

Intrauterine device (IUD)

Small T-shaped deivce that when inserted in the uterus prevents conception.

Barrier methods

Contraceptive methods based on physically separating sperm from the female repoductive tract.

Spermicide

Chemical agent that killls sperm.

Diaphragm

Circular rubber dome that is inserted in the vagina before intercourse to prevent conception.

Cervical cap

Small, cuplike rubber device that covers only the cervix and is inserted in the vagina before intercourse to prevent conception.

Contraceptive sponge

Small polyurethane foam device presaturated with spermicide that is inserted in the vagina before intercourse to prevent pregnancy.

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

A rare, life-threatening bacterial infection in the vagina associated with the use of tampons and female barrier contraceptive methods.

Fertility awareness-based methods

Contraceptive method based on abstinence during the window of time around ovulation when a woman is most likely to conceive.

Withdrawal

A contraceptive method in which the man removes his penis from the vagina before ejaculating.

Emergency contraception (EC)

A contraceptive method used after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy.

Sterilization

Surgical procedure that permanently prevents any future pregnancies.

Vasectomy

Male sterilization procedure, involving tying off and severing the vas deferens to prevent sperm from reaching the semen.

Tubal ligation

Female sterilization procedure involving severing and tying off or sealing the fallopian tubes to prevent ova from reaching the uterus.

Ectopic pregnancy

A pregnancy in which a fertilized egg implants or attaches itself outside of the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.

Elective abortion

Voluntary termination of a pregnancy.

Spontaneous abortion

Involuntary termination of a pregnancy, or miscarriage.

Surgical abortion

Surgical removal of the contents of the uterus to terminate a pregnancy.

Medical abortion

Use of a pharmaceutical agent to terminate a pregnancy.

Infertility

Inability to become pregnant after not using any form of contraception during sexual intercourse for 12 months.

Congenital abnormalities

Birth defects.

Prepregnancy counseling

Counseling before conception that may include an evaluation of current health behaviors and health status, recommendations for improving health, and treatment of any existing conditions that might increase risk.

Vertical transmission

Transmission of an infection or disease from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery.

Teratogens

Substances that can cause physical damage or defects in the fetus, especially if they are present during the first trimester, when rapid development of body organs is occuring.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Combination of birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, characterized by abnormal facial apparance, slow growth, mental retardation, and social, emotional, and behavior problems.

Preeclampsia

Dangerous condtion that can occur during pregnancy, chatacterized by high blood pressure, fluid retention possible kidney and liver damage, and potential fetal death.

Eclampsia

Potentially life-threatening disease that can develop during pregnancy, marked by seizures and coma.

Stillbirth

Infant death before or at the time of expected birth.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

Protein produced by the infant and released into the amniotic fluid; AFP measurement is used to screen for some fetal abnormalities.

Ultrasound

Technique for producing a visual image of the fetus using high-frequency sound waves.

Chronic villus sampling (CVS)

Technique for testing feal cells for chromosomal abnormalities by removing cells from the chorionic villus, part of the placenta in the uterus.

Amniocentesis

Technique for testing fetal cells for chromosomal abnormalities by removing a sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac.

Placenta

Structure that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and links the circulatory system of the fetus with that of the mother.

Amniotic sac

Membrane that surrounds the fetus in the uterus and contains amniotic fluid.

Labor

Physiological process by which the mothers bady expels the baby during birth.

Cesarean Section (C-section)

Surgical delivery of the infant through the abdominal wall.

Neonate

Newborn.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Combination of birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, characterized by abnormal facial apperance, slow growth, mental retardation, and social, emotional, and behavioral problems.

Positive psychology

area of interest within the field of psychology that focuses on positive emotions, character strengths, and conditions that create happiness.

Self-esteem

sense of positive regaurd and valuation for myself .

Self-actualization

In Maslow's work, the state attained when a person has reached his or her full potenial.

Resilience

ability to bounce back from adversity.

Emotional Intelligence

In Golemen's work the kind of intelligence that includes an understanding of emotional experience, self-awareness, and sensitivity to others.

Neurotransmitters

Brain chemicals thta conduct signals from one brain cell to the next.

Frontal Cortex

the part of the brain where the executive functions of planning, organizing, and rational thnking are controlled.

Frontal cortex

Controls planning, organizing, rational thinking, working memory, judgment, moood modulaiton. Undergoes rapid growth just before puberty, followed by pruning and consolidation during adolescence.

Amygdala

controls emotional responses and instinctual, "gut" reactions. Adolescents appear to rely more heavily on this part of the brain to interpret situations than adults do.

corpus callosum

relays information between the two hemispheres of the brain and is believed to play a role in creativity and problem solving. Grows and changes significantly during adolescense.

cerebellum

long know to be invollved in moter activity and physical coordination; now understood to coordinate thinking processes, including decision mkakin and social skills .Undergoes dynamic growth and change during adolescence.

Mental Disorder

according to the DSM-IV-TR, a pattern of behavior that is associated with distress (pain) aor disability (impairment in an important area of functioning, suchas school or work) or with significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom.

Depression

Mental state characterized by a depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities and several orther related symptoms.

Panic Attack

clear physiological experience of apprehension or intense fear in the absence of a real danger.

Panic disorder

mental disorder characterized by recurrent, enexpected panic attacks along with concern about having another attack.

addiction

dependence on a substance or a behavior.

Schizophrenia

a psychotic disorder in which a person has disorganized and disordered thinking and perceptions, bizarre ideas, hallucinations, and impaired functioning.

psychotherapy

treatment for psychological problems usually based on the development of a positive interpersonal relationship between a client and a therapist.

stressors

events or agents in the environment that cause stress.

stress

the general state of the body, mind and emotions when an environmental stressor has triggerred the stress response.

stress response or fight or flight response

series of physiological changes that activate body systems, providing a burst of energy to deal with a percived threat or danger.

homeostasis

state of stability and balance in whic hbody functions are maintained within a normal range.

relaxation response

series of physiological changes that calm body systems and return them to normal.

sympathetic branch

branch of the nervous system that is responsible for initiating the stress response.

parasympathetic branch

branch of the nervous system that is responsible for turning off the stress response and returning the body to normal.

acute stress

short term stress, produced by the stress response.

chronic stress

long term, low level stress in which the stress response continues without resolution

general adaptation syndrome

selyes classic model used to describe the physiological changes associated with the stress response. The three phases are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

hostility

ongoing accumulation of irritation and anger.

hardiness

effective style of coping with stress, characterized by a tendency to view life evenets as challenges rather than threats, a commitment to meaningful activities, and a sense of being in control.

affirmations

positive thoughts that you can write down or say to yourself to balance negative thoughts.

eustress

a positive stress that energizes a person and helps a person reach a goal

distress

a negative stress that can make a person sick or can keep a person from reaching a goal

autonomic nervous system

The sympathetic branch starts your stress response while the parasympathetic branch-ends your stress response

Self-efficacy

Perception of one's ability to perform certain tasks successfully.

Optimism

Maintaining a positive outlook.

Major Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities

Dysthymic Disorder

A person who has this may feel persistent symptoms of mild or moderate depression for an extended period of time.

Bipolar Disorder

a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks.

Mood changes

an extreme or rapid change in mood

Anxiety

A feeling of apprehension and dread, with or without a known cause; accompanied by physical symptoms.

Phobia

An anxiety disorder marked by an excessive fear of an object or a situation.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, intrusive thoughts, ect.; An anxiety disorder where you have to do something to satisfy your obsession.

Drug

Substance other than food that affects the structure or function of the body through its chemical action.

Psychoactive Drug

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

Illicit Drugs

Drugs that are unlawful to possess, manufacture, sell, or use.

Licit Drug

Drugs that are legal.

Instrumental use

taking a drug for a specific purpose other than getting high.

Recreational use

Using a drug for fun or to get high.

Stimulants

Drugs that speed up activity in the brain and the sympathetic nervous system.

Depressants

Drugs that slow down activity in the brain and sympathetic nervous system.

Opioids

Natural and synthetic derivatives of opium.

Hallucinogens

Drugs that alter perceptions and thinking, intensifying and distorting visual and auditory perceptions and producing hallucinations; also called psychedelics.

Inhalants

Breathable chemical vapors that alter consciousness, producing a state resembling dunkenness.

Endorphins

Natural chemicals in the brain that block pain during stressful or painful experiences.

Route of administration

How a drug get in your body
ex. injection, inhalation, absorption, etc.

Addiction

dependence on a drug

Signs of addiction

strong craving for a drug and compulsive use of the drug despite negative consequences

Psychoactive drug

A substance that causes changes in brain chemistry and alters consciousness.

Intoxication

Altered state of consciousness as a result of drinking alcohol or ingesting other substances.

Binge Drinking

Consumption of five or more drinks in a row by a man or four or more drinks in a row by a woman.

Central nervous System Depressant

Chemical substance that slows down the activity of the bain and spinal cord.

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

The amount of alcohol in grams in 100 milliliters of blood, expressed as a percentage.

Acute Alcohol Intoxication

A life-threatening blood alcohol concentration.

Blackout/ Hangover

Period of time during which a drinker is conscious but has partial or complete amnesia for events.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Set of birth defects associated with use of alcohol during pregnancy.

Fatty Liver

Condition in which the liver swells with fat globules as a result of alcohol consumption.

Alcoholic Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver as a result of alcohol consumption.

Cirrhosis

Scarring of the liver as a result of alcohol consumption.

Tar

Thick, sticky residue formed when tobacco leaves burn, containing hundreds of chemical compounds and carcinogenic substances.

Nicotine

Primary addictive ingredient in tobacco; a poison and a psychoactive drug.

Emphysema

Abnormal condition of the lungs characterized by decreased respiratory function and increased shortness of breath.

Chronic Bronchitis

Respiratory disorder characterized by mucus secretion, cough, and increasing difficulty in breathing.

Asthma

Respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, and thick mucus production.

Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)

Smoke from other people's tobacco products; also called secondhand smoke or passive smoking.

Carbon Monoxide

an odorless gas that interferes with the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen to vital body organs.

Body Image

Mental representation that a person has of his or her own body, including perceptions, attitudes, thoughts, and emotions.

Calorie Restriction

A reduction in calorie intake below daily needs.

Purging

Using self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or diuretics to get rid of excess calories that have been consumed.

Muscle Dysmorphia

Disorder in which a person peceives his body to be underdeveloped no matter how highly developed his muscles really are.

Disordered Eating Behaviors

Abnormal eating patterns (for example, vomiting, use of laxatives, extreme dieting) that may not fit the rigid diagnostic rules for anorexia or bulimia but affect quality of life.

Eating Disorders

Conditions characterized by severely disturbed eating behaviors and distorted body image; eating disorders jeopardize physical and psychological health.

Anorexia Nervosa

Eating disorder marked by distortion of body image and refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.

Bulimia Nervosa

Eating disorder marked by distortion of body image and repeated episodes of binge eating usually followed by purging in the form of self-induced vomiting, misuse of diuretics or laxatives, excessive exercising, or fasting.

Binge-Eating Disorder

Eating disorder marked by binge-eating behavior without the vomiting or purging of bulimia.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance.

Female Athlete Triad

Interrelated conditions of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.

Activity Disorder

Excessive or addictive exercising, undertaken to address psychological needs rather than to improve fitness.

Latent Infection

Infection that is not currently active but could reactivate at a later time.

Opportunistic Infections

Infections that occur when the immune system is weakened. These infections do not usually occur in a person with a healthy immune system.

Universal Precautions

A set of precautions designed to prevent transmission of bloodborne infections. Blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious for HIV and hepatitis B and C. Protective barriers, such as gloves, aprons, and protective eyewear. are used in health settings.

Drug Cocktails

Complicated drug combinations used to overcome drug resistance in different strains of HIV.

Microbicide

Compound or chemical in the form of a cream, gel, or suppository that would kill microorganisms and that could be applied topically to the vagina or rectum before intercourse, reducing the risk of STD transmission.

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