Sociology

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Chapters 5, 6, and 1/2 of 7

Socialization

A lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.

Personality

refers to a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling.

Id

is Freud's term for the human being's basic drives.

Ego

is Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society.

Superego

is Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual.

Sensorimotor Stage

is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses.

Preoperational Stage

is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols.

Concrete operational stage

is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first perceive causal connections in their surroundings.

Formal operational stage

is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically.

Self

is George Herbert Mead's term for that part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.

Looking- Glass Self

is Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us.

Generalized other

is George Herbert Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves.

Peer Group

is a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common.

Anticipatory Socialization

is learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

Mass Media

are impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience.

Cohort

is a category of people with common characteristics, usually their age.

Total Institution

is a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff.

Resocialization

refers to radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment.

Significant Others

are people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization.

preoperational stage

The stage at which children begin to use language and other symbols is called the

id

according to Freud, this represents the human beings basic drives

self

the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.

dramaturgical analysis

likens everyday life to a theatrical performance in which people slant their behavior to satisfy the demands of a particular audience?

Ethnomethodology

Harold Garfinkel coined this term, which is the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.

Conventional and Unconventional Reality

Humor comes from contrast between these two realities.

Emotion Management

The way we socially construct our emotions as part of our everyday reality

Role Exit

process by which people disengage from important social roles

Social Interaction

the process by which people act and react in relation to others

Status

a social position that a person occupies

Status Set

is all the statuses that a person holds at a given time

Ascribed Status

a social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life

Achieved Status

a social position a person assumes voluntarily that reflects ability and effort

Master Status

a status that a society defines as having special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life

Role

A behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status

Role Set

a number of roles attached to a single status

Role Conflict

conflict among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses

Role Strain

tension among the roles connected to a single status

Social Construction of reality

the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction

Thomas Theorem

the assertion that situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences

Ethnomethodology

the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings

Dramaturgical approach

the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance

Presentation of self

a person's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others

Nonverbal Communication

communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech

Personal Space

the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy

Social Group

two or more people who identify and interact with one another

Primary Group

a small group whose members share personal and enduring relationships

Secondary Group

a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity

Instrumental Leadership

is group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks

Expressive Leadership

group leadership that focuses on collective well-being

Groupthink

the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues

Reference Groups

social groups that serve as points of reference in making evaluations and decisions

In-Group

a social group commanding a member's esteem and loyalty

Out-Group

a social group toward which one feels competition or opposition

Dyad

a social group with two members

Triad

a social group with three members

Network

Web of weak social ties

Generalized Other

George Herbert Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves

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