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australia and new zealand

what countries are highly urbanized in the australia and oceania region?

pap new guinea

what country stands out as being the least developed in the australia and oceania region?

urbanization of the australia and oceania region

all of the following describes what?
subsistence affluence: low income decent standard of living:
-reasonable diet from local resources
-extended family support systems
-decent health and education systems

overexploitation

the island nation of Nauru illustrates the vulnerability of many Pacific Islands to what?

-no arable land remaining after phosphate mining ended in 2003 (mined all of it, destroyed soil, could no longer grow food, 100% urbanized)
-all food for pop. of 13,000 must be imported
-national finances been taken over by australia

describe the story of Nauru.

globalization

the integration into the global system occurred because of what?

income from sugar exports, remittances, and tourism

how are the islands affected by globalization, for example, the economic development of Fiji?

subsistence affluence

low income decent standard of living

aborigine

an indigenous inhabitant of australia

aborigine

what groups of people are particularly disadvantaged in this region?

maori, new zealand-landholdings greatly reduced to only 3%, low rates of education, high rates of unemployment

where do the aborigines reside and how are they disadvantaged?

-recently gained more rights, land claims, and recognition of bicultural society
-persistent racism, poverty, and alienation

how is life for the aborigine today?

higher incidence of cancer-radioactive pollution due to nuclear testing

what is one of the primary health concerns in the region? what has contributed to this?

marshall islands

the u.s. government changed life in what islands?

nuclear testing in the pacific ocean which lead to radioactive pollution which also leads to cancer

how did the u.s. government change life the in marshall islands? what damages resulted from our activities?

prevailing winds

what caused the shift of radioactive fallout to eastern Marshal islands?

radiation sickness, thyroid disease, reproductive problems, and cancer

what health issues developed as a result of the radioactive fallout to eastern marshal islands?

u.s. awarded the marshall islands $300 million to the marshallese

how did the u.s. help the marshal islands with the physical and social damages of the nuclear testing?

a hospital on island for radiation-related health problems, and medical training to care for own people

what did the marshall island people prefer instead of the money from the u.s. for the social and physical damages of the nuclear testing?

isolation

why is the region of australia and oceania so vulnerable to environmental degradation?

sea level rising-predicted to rise 15-24in over next 100 years

what is the impact of global climate change in the australian and oceania region?

< 8ft above sea level

what is the average elevation of marshall islands?

global climate change-rise in sea level

what is one of the grave environmental threats facing the Pacific Islands?

numerous extinctions, damaged crops, and spread disease

how has the introduction of non-native species impacted the region of australia and oceania?

rats

what is one example of a non-native species?

-european rabbit-overgrazing= soil erosion, mammals became threatened or extinct
-can toad introduced to destroy pests in sugarcane crops-destroyed frogs, reptiles, small marsupials, and native birds; highly toxic to predators

what are examples of non-native species and the damages in australia alone?

atoll

a low, sandy island made from coral. often oriented around a central lagoon

volcanos

how are coral atolls formed?

erosion, build up of coral

what makes islands so vulnerable to rising sea levels and storms?

white australia policy

before 1973, a set of stringent australian limitations on nonwhite immigration to the country, it has been largely replaced by a more flexible policy today

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