AP Human Geography- Unit 6, Part 1

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Urbanization

The movement of people to, and the clustering of people in, towns and cities- a major force in every geographic realm today. Also when expanding cities absorb the rural countryside and transforms it into suburbs.

Urban Morphology

The physical layout of a city; its physical form and structure

Urban Hearth Area

An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile River Valley where large cities first existed.

Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution

Four different epochs that cause a large amount of industrial development, they were Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830), Iron Horse Epoch (1830-1870), characterized by impact of steam engine technology, and development of steamboats and regional railroad networks. Steel Rail Epoch (1870-1920), dominated by the development of long haul railroads and a national railroad network. Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-

Urban Hierarchy

A ranking of settlements (hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions.

Colonial City

City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.

Urban Banana

arch of the dominant overland. Trade based cities stretching from London to Tokyo in the 1500's before the rise of sea based trade and exploration.

Shock city

Urban place experiencing infrastructural challenges related to massive and rapid urbanization.

Industrial city

Cities that were developed hugely as an effect of the Industrial Revolution

Rank-size Rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.

Primate City

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people s the second ranking settlement.

Christaller's Central Place Theory

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.

Central Place Theory

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.

Central Place

Any point or place in the urban hierarchy, such as a town or city, having a certain economic reach or hinterland.

Hinterland

Surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and it is the dominant urban influence as well.

Threshold

In central place theory, the size of the population required to make provision of services economically feasible.

Range (of goods and services)

The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.

World cities

A city in which a disproportionate part of the world's most important business is conducted. Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.

Mega cities

A city with a population of greater than 10 million

Metropolitan statistical area

Has at least one urbanzed area of 50,000 or more and adjacent territory that has a high degree of socail and economic integration

Megalopolis

an extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.

Micropolitan statistical area

Has at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 and adjacent territory has a high degree of social and economic integration

Functional zonation

The division of a city into different regions or zones (residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (housing or manufacturing)

Central business district (CBD)

The downtown hearth of a central city. Marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.

Central city

The urban area that is not suburban. Generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs.

Suburb

A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.

Burgess's Concentric Zone Model

A structural model of the American central city that suggest the evidence of five concentric land use rings arranged around a common center.

Succession migration

When one person of a family migrates, then proceeds to bring the rest of the family or village along after they have been established

Zone in transition

An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban

Peak land value intersection

The region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail

BId-rent curve

a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre.

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