Rapid Hypersensitivity Reactions
May involve all blood vessels and bronchiolar smooth muscle, causing widespread blood vessel dilation, decreased cardiac output, and bronchoconstriction, which is known as anaphylaxis
• Air-conditioning and air-cleaning units
• Cloth drapes
• Upholstered furniture
• Mast cell stabilizers
• Leukotriene antagonists
• Complementary and alternative therapy
• Desensitization therapy
• First feelings of uneasiness, apprehension, weakness, and impending doom.
• Pruritus and urticaria.
• Erythema and sometimes angioedema of the eyes, lips, or tongue.
• Histamine causes capillary leak, bronchoconstriction, mucosal edema, and excess mucus secretion.
• Congestion, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, and increasing respiratory distress with audible wheezing result.
• Anaphylaxis can be fatal.
• Decrease in O2
• Increased HR, Increased BP
• Can go into chemical shock
• If caused by medication, stop medication, change tubing
• Keep medication for tests afterwards
• Notify the physician, rapid response team
• Give patient Benadryl, steriod (Solumederol), tylenol, epinephrine IM injection
• Maintain airway
• Recognize symptoms early
• Teach patient to carry epi-pen (know how to work it), allergy bracelet
• First assess respiratory function; an airway must be established.
• CPR may be needed.
• Epinephrine (1:1000) 0.3 to 0.5 mL subcutaneous is given as soon as symptoms appear.
• Antihistamines treat angioedema and urticaria.
• Treat bronchospasm.
• IV fluids.