Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

France's Three Estates

Also known as three orders; France's inhabitants legally divided into the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else

Bourgeoisie

France's upper middle class who helped to lead entire third estate in revolution

Revisionism

Also called new interpretations; new research that has challenged long-accepted views on events such as the French Revolution

the duke of Orleans

sanctioned a counter-weight to the king's absolutists power

The War of the Austrian Succession

plunged France into financial crisis and, as a result, the state attempted a reform on the tax system

Rene de Maupeou

appointed by Louis XV to crush the judicial opposition; created new parlement called Maupeou parlement

Madame de Pompadour

mistress of Louis XV; she held much control over popular culture, politics, and the king

desacralization

to be stripped of the sacred aura of God's anointed on earth; example: Louis XV

The American Revolution

It was closely followed by the French and had a practical and ideological impact them and their revolution.

Lafayette

A French officer who served in the American Revolution

Causes for the French Revolution

1. class tension 2. desacralization of the monarchy 3. the American Revolution 4. financial crisis

Assembly of the Notables

important nobles and high-ranking clergy

The Estates General

A legislative body in prerevolutionary France made up of representatives of each of the three classes, or estates; it was called into session in 1789 for the first time since 1614.

"What is the Third Estate?"

famous pamphlet written by Sieyes that argued that the nobility was a tiny over-privledged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation

National Assembly

previously known as the Third Estate; took the Oath of the Tennis Court and pledged to make a constitution

Bread riots

broke out in Paris among the common people; result of extremely high prices of bread, economic depression, and the collapse of a demand for manufactured goods

Bastille

royal prison in Paris; stormed by peasants in search of weapons and gunpowder

The Great Fear

The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and led to further revolt.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

issued by the National Assembly; guaranteed equality before the law, representative government for a sovereign people, and individual freedom

duke of Aiguillon

a powerful noble who advocated more equality and freedom for the French peasantry

Women's March on Versailles

women marched to Versailles and demanded that the monarchs be moved back to Paris

Constitutional Monarchy

A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.

Olympe de Gouges

advocated women's rights in France; published her "Declaration of the Rights of Woman"

Saint-Domingue

most profitable of all Caribbean colonies; there was much social tension and the blacks revolted after seeing the events taking place in France

Code noir

Black code; granted free black people the same rights as whites

Edmund Burke

A British man who wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France, which defended inherited privileges of monarchy and aristocracy; it sparked much debate

Mary Wollstonecraft

A British woman who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man in response to Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France; Also wrote a Vindication for the Rights of Women in which she advocated women's rights

Declaration of Pillnitz

issued by the rulers of Austria and Prussia in support on France's monarchy

Robespierre

Revolutionary leader who was eventually turned upon and executed

Jacobin Club

A political club in revolutionary France whose members were well-educated radical republicans; Divided into Girondists and the Mountain

The Second Revolution

From 1792 to 1795, the second phase of the French Revolution, during which the fall of the French monarchy introduced a rapid radicalization of politics.

Girondists

A moderate group that fought for control of the French National Convention in 1793.

The Mountain

Led by Robespierre, the French National Convention's radical faction, which seized legislative power in 1793.

sans-culottes

The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the aristocracy and middle class; the word came to refer to the militant radicals of the city.

Committee of PUblic Safety

Led by Robespierre to deal with threats from within and outside of France

The Reign of Terror

The period from 1793 to 1794 during which Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands suspected of treason and a new revolutionary culture was imposed.

dechristianization

Campaign to eliminate Christian faith and practice in France undertaken by the revolutionary government.

Toussaint L'Ouverture

A freed slave who joined in the revolt and became a key leader of the slave and freed black forces.

Thermidorian Reaction

A reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1794, resulting in the execution of Robespierre and the loosening of economic controls.

the Directory

a five man executive chosen by the National Assembly

Napoleon Bonaparte

military leader who took over France and made himself emperor; He led many successful military ventures, but eventually was defeated and imprisoned

Napoleonic Code

French civil code promulgated in 1804 that reasserted the 1789 principles of the equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property as well as restricting rights accorded to women by previous revolutionary laws.

Concordat

signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII; it gave Catholics religious freedom and Napoleon the power to nominate France's bishops

Lord Nelson

British admiral that defeated Napoleon

General Leclerc

Napoleon's brother-in-law, whom he sent to Saint-Domingue to remove L'Ouverture from his position

Grand Empire

The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia.

Continental System

A blockade imposed by Napoleon to halt all trade between continental Europe and Britain, thereby weakening the British economy and military.

Treaty of Chaumont

Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain joined together to defeat Napoleon

Battle of Waterloo

Napoleon officially defeated and exiled to St. Helena

Louis XVIII

ascended throne after Napoleon

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set