China & Rome (Unit 4)

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monsoon

2 different winds that create a downpour and help China's agriculture

Yellow River

loess (brown/yellow dust)
fertile soil (agriculture)
towns/cities settle here and transportation routes
the Nile for China

Xia

3 Sage Kings = wise person
Yu tamed the Yellow River
doesn't really exist

Shang (includes Yin Yang)

copper and tin = BRONZE
Anyang (organized) capital city
Yin (girl) Yang (guy)
patriarchal society
2nd dynasty
Chinese dynasty begins here

Zhou

FEUDALISM
duke = military leader
govt. power increased
noble power decreased

feudalism

local government
govt., society, economic sys., makes deals to get what it needs

Daoism

go with the flow
be one with nature
philosophy

Mandate of Heaven

approval of the gods to rule
the ruler is supposed to be a guardian of the people

Confucianism

MORAL/elite
patriarchal
hierarchal (5 relationships)
father - son
older bro - younger bro
ruler - subject
Devotion
SOCIAL HARMONY
philosophy
"the analects"
do the right thing

filial piety

honor mother and father
(CONFUCIANISM)

Legalism

people = bad at heart
strict discipline
used by Qin Shi Huangdi

oracle bones

predicts future
BOX Oracle of Delphi
shang

Role of Family

most IMPORTANT
respect elders
women treated unfairly
son is always wanted

Warring States Period (Period of Warring States)

legalism, daiosim, confucianism developed

Qin

used Legalism (strict discipline)
UNIFICATION!
roads
about 15 yrs

Qin Shi Huangdi

1st emperor
made china strong empire
strong military
unification
Standardization (coins, language/writing, measuring)
gr8 wall and terra-cotta soldiers

Han

Golden Age
SOCIAL HARMONY!
adds confucianism
SILK ROAD!!!!!!!

Silk Road

used for silk trade
path traveled for trading silk
trades stirrups
connects Chang'an to Rome
Trade/culture exchange -> Dominance (diversity)
more trade = more advancement (cradle)

Emperor Wu/Han Wu Di

military expansion
horse collar
cross bow
communication
Silk Road

Indian Ocean Maritime trade (IOMS)

trading route on Indian Ocean (helps with advancement)

RICE

basis of China's agriculture

Gentry

middle class
lessens gap between rich and poor
scholar-officials
made govt. more efficient

monarchy

1 king

Roman Republic

CHECKS AND BALANCES
representative govt.
Punic Wars
Carthage vs. Rome

Downfall of R.R.

GAP between rich and poor
corrupt senate
unemployment
lot of wars
RISE military dictators

Rise of R.R.

EXPANSION!
professional army
better organization
ASSIMILATION (fully understand culturally)

Senate

advisors to consuls

consuls

"presidents"

partricians

elite

plebians

lower class

Roman Principate/Empire

princeps = 1st among equals
government where emperor "listens" to other branches

Augustus Caesar

founder of Roman Principate
defeated all of his rivals
PROSPERITY

Octavian

redid the govt. system of the Romans carefully

equites

successful landowners second in status and wealth to senatorial aristocracy, in "ancient Italy"
middle class

Pax Romana

"Roman peace"
stability & prosperity
kept senate and plebeians happy
culture
not as much war

Romanization

spread of Roman way of life and Latin language

aqueducts

either underground or elevated channel for conveying water that used gravity to carry water where it was needed
Romans built many of them to keep a time of sold urbanization

Constantine

makes Christianity legal

Constantinople (Byzantium)

Constantinope changes capital from Rome to Byzantium because its a better location, he renames it Constantinople

Diocletian

saved Roman Empire, splits into 2

Byzantine Empire

when Rome split into 2, eastern part of Rome

Roman Empire Fall

Barbarians
poor leadership
GAP between rich and poor
Disease

Julius Caesar

good general
brought Rome out of the republic into the empire
dictator

Roman Empire Rise

Etruscans (pre-Romans = ancestors)
7 kings
urbanized and started to become more powerful
Republic
Emperors

stirrups

keep control of horse
where you put your feet

triangular, latten sails

traingular-shaped sails
allowed ships to sail against the wind
invented by Chinese
perfected by Arab Traders

urbanization

becoming a city

limited democracy

...

agora

a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece

merit

any admirable quality or attribute

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