Criminology Chapters 9-12

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VICTIM REPORTS
What does UCR stand for?

Uniform Crime Reports: Provide info on crimes reported to Law Enforcement.

As an example of UCR Costs of Criminal Victimization in 1998 exceeded $15.8 billion. This reflects personal and property crime. True or False

FALSE Because this only reflects property crimes to both. It does not reflect the cost of medical crimes.

INDIVIDUAL COST
What Are 3 Financial Loses of Victims?

1. Medical costs 2. Families of victimized wage earners can face economic hardships. 3. Can cause long lasting pain and anguish.

SOCIETAL COST
What Are 3 of the costs that are societal?

1. The economic loss may be passed on to others. 2.Retail establishments pass on losses of theft to the customer in price hikes.
3. Community fear.

TYPES OF VICTIMIAZATION
Two types of victimization are?

1. Personal Crime 2. Property Crime

Costs of victimization fall under two categories what are the two elements?

1. Individual cost 2. Societal cost

Types of Victimization: Know at least 4

1. Strangers 2. Workplace 3. Family 4. Spouse Abuse 5. Child Abuse 6. Elderly Abuse 7 Women

HATE CRIMES
Based On Situational Factors But On Animosity Toward Individuals Who Are "Different" Are Classified as hate crimes. True or False

TRUE

RESPONDING TO VICTIMIZATION
There are a number of ways to respond to victimization what are they?

Crime Prevention-Educational/Awareness programs and self-defense training at the local levels, special assistance programs at the local and state levels, or the enactments of prohibitive legislation at the state and federal levels. Victim Assistance Programs-Run by governmental agencies such as a district attorney's office, by private organizations that contact with the state or local governments to provide services, or by volunteer organizations. May receive free medical or mental health services, or may find someone who will assist them in understanding and enduring the strain of the criminal justice process. Victim Compensation-Depending on the circumstances victims may receive support in paying medical bills and/or living expenses incurred due to the injuries resulting from a crime.(Financial assistance is often limited.) Offender Restitution-Requires offenders to make financial reparations to their victim. These payments may be made directly to the victim or may be paid to the court or community correctional officials for transfer to the victim. Offender restitution is similar to a fine in that moneys are paid to the community by the offender, but differ from traditional fines in that they are paid into a programs specifically designated to aid crime victims. Victim's Rights-Victims are to be made aware of and have input into plea bargain agreements, sentencing outcomes, and the release of the offenders from prison. In response to these demands the Victims of Crimes Act was passed by Congress in 1984. Victim Awareness and Empowerment-The Victims' Rights movement of the 1980s and 1990s helped educate the public on victim's issues, which also helped promote crime prevention and victim advocacy efforts, Ub addition to education on how to avoid victimization and counseling on how to cope with victimization, programs in dispute resolution were also initiated. Dispute resolution- are programs that enable offenders and victims to meet with arbitrators to resolve the issues outside criminal prosecution and/or civil legislation.

TYPES OF VICTIMIZATION
What are 3 Crime Prevention Strategies?

1. locks 2. security devices 3. lighting

Seeing a specific type of crime or criminal offender from several perspectives is from what approach?

Holistic

There are 4 sub theories under Holistic Incorporation Theories what are they?

A. Bioenvironmental
B. Conceptual Absorption
C. Conceptual Integration
D. General Paradigm Theory

Bioenvironmental Theory has to do with Nature not Nurture. True or False

False Because it has to do with both.

Criminal behavior can be said to be based on social learning because every other theory uses social learning components.

Conceptual Absorption

This theory does not provide an integrated theory as much as a framework that demonstrates how other theories compliment one another.

Conceptual Integration

All crimes are products of human desires is what?

General Paradigm

Victimology

Is the scientific study of the causes, Circumstances, Individual Characteristics, and Social context of becoming a victim of a crime.

There are 4 Victimology Early Theories what are they?

A. Personal Factors Theory
B. Situational Factors Theory
C. Crime Even Theory
D. Victim Precipitation Theory

First to claim that the victim could be a contributing factor to his or her successive victimization is what theory?

Personal Factors Theory

A PERSONAL FACTORS THEORY
What's the definition of Typology of Victims?

Looks at the susceptibility of characteristics to being a victim of a crime.

TABLE 10-3 Know this!!!!
Victim Precipitation Typology
1. The Completely Innocent Victim.
2. The Victim With Minor Guilt.
3. The Victim Who Is As Guilty As The Offender.
4. The Victim More Guilty Than The Offender.
5. The Most Guilty Victim.
6. The Imaginary Victim.
(Could be fill in the blank on the test!)
" Just the list! Don't Need To Know The Information About Each One."

...

SITUATIONAL FACTORS
What are the 3 tenets of the Situational Factors that Lead to a Criminal Event?

1. The relationship that might exist between offender and victim. 2. Focuses on factors within the social relationship. 3. That victims could be in-part responsible for putting themselves at risk.

Which theory is more than willing to hold their victim partially responsible?

Situational Factors Theory

What does Crime Event Theory do?

Concentrates on the crime event more than the offender/victim. "Complete opposite of what the Situational Factor Theory does."

VICTIM PRECIPITATION THEORY:
There are two studies that led to the disruption of victimology what were they?

Homicide and Rape
Read page 167 about this!!!!

What is the theory thats concept is the victim "Asked For It"? For an example, being in a questionable place such as a bar, hitchhiking, reputation, wearing provocative clothing.

Victim Precipitation Theory

LIFESTYLE THEORY
People may increase or decrease their potential to become victims of crime based on their lifestyles. True or False

True

LIFESTYLE THEORY
Whats the definition of Equivalent Group Hypothesis?

Individuals who become victims of crime often exhibit the same lifestyle characteristics as do their offenders. People who engage in criminal activities are frequently victimized by their associates. Within this group there tends to be repeat victimization.

LIFESTYLE THEORY
Whats the definition of Proximity Hypothesis?

Is similar to Equivalent Group Hypothesis in that it considers the influence of the victim's lifestyle on his or her vulnerability to crime, but it emphasizes where victims live rather than their individual characteristics.

LIFESTYLE THEORY
Whats the definition of Deviant Place Hypothesis?

Takes the concept of proximity further by focusing on those areas in which social disorganization and crime tend to flourish. The supposition is that the proximity to offenders is increased among those who live in areas which crime flourishes.

KNOW THIS WORD FOR WORD
Routine Activities Theory

When motivated offenders and suitable targets come into contact in the same place and time in the absence of any deterrent = CRIME WILL OCCUR

HOLISTIC APPROACH
General Paradigm Theory

This theory must include ecological, integrative, developmental, and both macro- and microlevel explanations if it is to explain all types of criminal behavior.

General Theories

Single factor approaches to crime causation do not adequately explain the myriad of criminal offenders and criminal behaviors studied within criminology.

Holistic Theories

Despite the problems inherent in using an integrated theoretical perspective, a number of efforts have combined multifactor perspectives regarding crime and criminality into more holistic explanations.

Conceptual Integration
The basis for the theoretical framework is that 8 concepts can be identified in all criminological theories.

1. Utility
2. Behavior Skills
3. Signs of opportunities to commit crimes.
4. Behavioral Resources
5. Rules of expedience
6. Rules of morality
7. Utility Receptions
8. Information acquisition

Self Control

Merges concepts of control theory with rational choice, routine activities, and biological and psychological explanations. Integral to their explanation is that crime and criminal behavior are different concepts. People who engage in criminal acts are seen as having low self-control.

The causes of crime are impulsive personalities, low self-control, weekend social bonds, and criminal opportunities. An impulsive personality is developed by a certain biological and psychological factors. Low self-control is a product of impulsive personality combined with social factors such as deviant parents.

Integrative Delinquency

Self-esteem is integral to understanding juvenile's delinquency. A juvenile's self-esteem is determined by interactions with conforming adults and these interactions may result in a positive or negative self-concept.

In this model, individual and structural conditions indirectly influence delinquency first through social controls and later through self-esteem and peer associations.

Identity Theory

Criminal behavior is the product nature and nurture.

AKA- Enviroclassical conflict draws from a variety of approaches that might ordinary be seen as being incompatible.

Personal Factor Theory is the first theory to claim that the victim could be a contributing factor to his or her successive victimization. True or False

True

Victim Typology Table 10-2

1. The Young--children
2. The Female--women
3. The Old--the elderly
4. The Mentally Defective--the feebleminded, mentally ill
5. Immigrants--newly arrived and naive about the culture
6. Minorities--disadvantaged due to racial bias
7. Dull Normals--the slow or ignorant
8. The Depressed--the dejected and emotionally drained
9. The Acquisitive--greedy people seeking to gain
10. The Wanton--promiscuous individuals
11. The Lonesome/Heartbroken--suffering from emotional loss
12. The Tormentor--the abuser who provokes violence
13. The Blocked, Exempted, Or Fighting--those whose actions have placed themselves in losing situations
14. The Activating Sufferer--victim as perpetrator

Victim Precipitation Typology Table 10-4

1. Unrelated Victims
2. Provocative Victims
3. Precipitative Victims
4. Biologically Weak Victims
5. Socially Weak Victims
6. Self-Victimizing
7. Political Victims

Primary Victimization

Refers to personalized or individualized victimization in which the victims were selected for victimization based on personal attributes. This would be exemplified by an attack on an individual because of knowledge about that person or because that individual fit the offender's victim profile.

Secondary Victimization

Occurs when the public or society as a whole is considered to be the victim of criminal activity, for example, when public officials engage in unlawful or corrupt behavior that is detrimental to the welfare of their constituents.

Tertiary Victimization

Occurs when the public or society as a whole is considered to be the victim of criminal activity, for example when the public officials engage in unlawful or corrupt behavior that is detrimental to the welfare of their constituents.

Mutual Victimization

Occurs when one offender is victimized by an associate or accomplice. For example, a falling-out among gang members might result in a shooting incident.

No Victimization

Occurs when willing participants engage in allegedly victimless crimes, such as gambling or prostitution.

What are two types of Victim Precipitation Theories?

Active precipitation- Individuals who engaged in behavior that was provocative or instrumental in causing their victimization.
Passive precipitation- Occurs when victims unwittingly contribute to their victimization through actions (or inaction) that make them more vulnerable.

What are the 5 Contemporary Victimization Theories?

1. General Victimology Theory
2. Critical Victimology Theory
3. Compatible Victimology Theory
4. Lifestyle Theory
5. Routine Activities Theory

General Victimology Theory
What are the 5 New Definitions of Victims?

1. Victim of a criminal
2. Victim of one's self
3.Victim of social environment
4. Victim of Technology
5. Victim of the natural environment

Victim Precipitation Theory

The concept is the victim "Asked For It!" For an example, being in a questionable place such as a bar, hitch hiking, reputation, wearing provocative clothing.

Victims Of a Criminal

Covers all acts initiated by other individuals or groups of individuals.

Victims Of One's Self

Involves acts of self-abuse or injury such as suicide

Victim Of the Social Environment

Refers to incidents such as discrimination based on race or class, as well as governmental abuse of power.

Victim Of Technology

Alludes to people who fall prey to technological advances and their impacts

Victim of the Natural Environment

Those affected by Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, and tornados.

Victimology Characteristics

BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATS 2010
-Age: 12-24 Are The Most Frequent Victims
-Race: African Americans
-Gender:Men More Likely than Women But Rates Are Getting Closer

Critical Victimology Theory

Tends to focus more on social conditions that are thought to influence the incidence of crime and victimization than does contemporary victimology.

Compatible Victimology Theory

Provides for divergent perspectives in the study of victimization.

Why was the study of victimology disrupted?

Because of disagreements about victims precipitation among scholars, criminal justice practitioners, the media, and the public. Proponents argued that the victim's involvement in crime must be understood in order to prevent future victimization. Critics argued that victim precipitation was nothing more than blaming the victim for what the offender had done.
Ultimately, a compromise was reached, as victimologists established a middle ground that recognized that in some situations victims had some responsibility but that in many other situations victim behavior had little or no bearing on their victimization.

Describe the Multidisciplinary Nature of Victimology:

1. Victimologists study the reasons (if any) why and how the victim entered a dangerous situation. This approach does not attempt to fix the blame on the victim, rather it examines the dynamics that resulted in the victim's being in a dangerous situation.
2. Victimology evaluates how police, prosecutors, courts, and related agencies interact with the victim, and how the victim was treated at each stage in the criminal justice system.
3. Victimologists evaluate the effectiveness of efforts to reimburse victims for their losses and meet the victims' personal and emotional needs.

Lifestyle Theory

Hold that people may increase or decrease their potential to become victims of crime based on their lifestyles. Some individuals have lifestyles that are very high risk, where as others tend to live more sedate or conventional existences, which are much lower risk. The premise is quite simple: The more you place yourself in harms way, the more likely you are to be harmed.

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