Med. Microbio Final Exam Chapter 20

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Magic Bullet Concept

*Antibiotics
*bullet kills only selected target (pathogen) and not the innocent bystander (host)
* developed by Paul Ehrilich in early 1900s
~tested many compound- #606 worked
*#606-cured trypanosomal infections in mice (causes encephalitis in humans), then used it to treat syphilis in humans

Thereputic Index

the maximum dose that is toxic to the patient/minimum effective dose
high ratio=high TI=less toxic to patient

Spectrum of Drugs

*range of different types of microbes that will be susceptible to a particular antibiotic.
~Wide/Narrow
*wide: amipicillin, choramphenicol/tetracycline,stepomycin
*narrow:penicillin,polymyxin B, isoniazid

Antibiotics

*Biological origin.
*produced by microbes or plants

Penicillin

*Beta-lactum ring with side R group.
*R group can be added in manufacture to change activity.
*prevents peptide cross linking of the peptidoglycan
*Flemming 1928
*production moved to US in 1940 (pre-WWII), death rate from infection went down

Penicillinase

*enzyme made by bacteria that makes it resistant to penicillin
*breaks beta-lactum ring

Routes of Administration

*Intervenus, intramuscular, oral
*Quickest to slowest: IV,IM,oral

Antibiotics Cell Targets

*inhibition of cell wall synthesis
*inhibition of protein synthesis (target ribosomes):
*inhibition to DNA synthesis
*inhibition to metabolic functions
*injury to plasma membrane

Resistant Genes (antibiotic resistance mechanism)

*antibiotic degrading enzymes
*efflux pump(removes antibiotic from cell before harm occurs)
*antibiotic altering (chemically alters the antibiotic)

Cell Mutations (antibiotic resistant mechanism)

*prevention of antibiotic entering the cell
*target is altered
ex: ribosome altered by mutation so antibiotic doesn't bind

Multiple resistance

*plasmid transfer of several gene sets that confer resistance by different mechanisms

Antiviral Drugs

*not technically antibiotics
*considered chemotherapeutic drugs
*interfere with viral replication stages (attachment,penetration,biosynthesis, release)
* HIV,Herpes, Influenza, Hepatitis with antivirals

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