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Clinical and vocabulary terminology

abcess

The accumulation of pus within an enclosed tissue space

adhesions

restrictive fibrous connections that can result from surgerym infectionm or other injuries to serous membranes

anaplasia

an irreversible change in teh size, shape of tissue cells

antiangiogenesis factor

a secretion, produced by chondrocytes, that inhibits the growth of blood vessels

ascites

the accumulation of fluid in teh peritoneal cavity, usually caused by liver or kidney disease or heart failure

dysplasia

a reversible change in the normal shape, size, and organization of tissue cells

exfoliative cytology

the study of cells shed or collected from epithelial surfaces

liposuction

a surgical procedure to remove unwanted adipose tissue by sucking it out through a tube

metaplasia

a reversiblle structural change that alters the character of a tissue

necrosis

tissue destruction that occurs after cells have been injured or destroyed; a result of the release of lysosomal enzmes through autolysis

pathologists

physicians who specialize in the study of diseas processes

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardial lining that may lead to the accumulation of pericardial fluid (pericardial effusion)

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum after infection or injury

pleuritis

ubflammation of the pleural cavities; may cause the production of a sound known as a "pleural rub"

regeneration

the repairing of injured tissue that follows inflammation

CAMs

cell adhesion molecules: transmembrane proteins bind to wach other and to extracellular materials

intercellular cement

thin layer of proteoglycans: glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronan)

cell junctions

soecialized areas of the cell membrane that attach a cell to another cell or to extracellular materials: three common types - tight, gap, and desmosomes

tight junction

a continuous adhesion belt forms a band; prevent that passage of water and solutes between cells

gap junction

two cells held together by interlockingjunctional proteins called connexons; narrow passageway that allow small molecules and ions to pass from cell to cell

desmosomes

typically formed by two cells; abundant between cells in the superficial layers of the skin. two types of desmosomes: button and hemidesmosomes

button desmosomes

small discs connected to bands of intermediate fibers; intermediate fibers function as cross-braces to stabilize the shape of the cell

hemidesmosomes

half of a button desmosome; attaches one cell to extracellular filaments in the basal lamina

lamina lucida

acts as a barrier that restricts the movement of proteins and other large molecules from underlying connective tissue into the epithelium

lamina densa

contains bundles of coarse protein fibers produced by the connective tissue cells; gives the basement membrane its strength; acts as a filter determining what substances can diffuse between adjacent tissue and the eprthelium

germinative cells

know as stem cells, located near basal lamina; Only way epithelium can maintain its structure over time is the their continual division

basal lamina

two-part - lamina lucida and lamina densa; attaches the inner surface of the epithelium

simple epithelium

one layer of cells covering the basal lamina; fragile; line internal compartments and passageways including the ventral bady cavities, the heart chambersm and blood vessels

stratified epithelium

several layers of cells covering the basal lamina; surface of skin and he lining of he mouth

squamous epithelium

thin, flat, and somewhat irregular in shape; the disc-shaped nucleus occupies the thickesst portions of each cell

simple squamous epithelium

most delicate type of epithelium; located in protected regions where absorption or giffusion takes place; slick, slippery surfaces reduce friction

mesothelium

lines ventral body cavity; pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium contain superficial layer

endothelium

linning the inner surface of the heart, and all blood vessels

stratified squamous epithelium

series of layers (plywood); surface of skin, lining of mouth, esophagus, and anus are areas of this type of epithelium

keratinized

apical layers of epitheliual cells are packed with filaments of protei keratin; resulting in the superficial layers toughness and water resistance

cuboidal epithelia

resemble hexagonal boxes; nucleus near center of cell; provides protection and occurs where secretion or absorption takes place; lines kidney tubules

stratified cuboidal epithelia

relatively rare; located along the ducts of sweat glands, and larger ducts of the mammary glands

transitional epithelia

tolerates repeated cycles of stretching and recoil without damage; changes appearance as it stretches; found in regionjs of the urinary bladder

Pap test

sampling procedure toscreen for cervical cancer: scraping cells from the tip of the cervix; cancer

amniocentesis

shed epithelial cells are collected from a sample of amnioic fluid; examination can determine whether or not the fetus has a genetic abnormality - Down syndrome

columnar epithelium

taller and more slender than cuboidal epithelium

pseudostratified columnar epothelium

gives the appearance of being layered; typically possess cilia -line nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, and portions of the male reproductive tract

stratified columnar epithelia

relatively rare: providing protection along portions of the pharynx, epiglottus, anus, and the urethra, also a few large excretory ducts

glandular epithelia

contain gland cells specialized for secretion; range from scattered cells - complex glandular organs

endocrine glands

release secretions into the interstitial fluid (hormones)

exocrine glands

release secretions into passageways called ducts that open onto an epithelial surface

merocrine secretion

mode of secretion; released from secretory vesicle by exocytosis - most common mode of secretion

mucus

effective lubricant, protective barrier, and sticky trap for foreign particles and microorganisms

apocrine secretion

involves the loss of cytoplasm as wll as secretory product; apical portion of cytoplasm becomes packed with secretory vesicles and is then shed; leave the cell intact and able to continue secreting

holocrine secretion

destroys the gland cell; the entire cell becomes packeds with secretory products and then bursts; releasing secretion, but killing the cell

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