soc 204 ch 4-7

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A focus on the broad features of society to analyze such things as social class and how groups relate to one another is:

a. macro analysis
b. micro analysis
c. meta analysis
d. qualitative analysis

a. macro analysis

which of the following is an example of social interaction?

a. a students reading a sociology textbook
b. a social worker watching a panel discussion
c. a homeless man sleeping on a sidewalk heating grate
d. a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals

d. a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals

The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, is referred to as:

a. social solidarity
b. the social imperative
c. social institutions
d. social structure

d. social structure

A category of people who have comparable levels of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige constitutes a:

a. social role
b. social status
c. social class
d. social category

c. social class

Jane is a nurse, wife and mother. This would be and example of:

a. her ascribed status
b. her achieved status
c. her roles
d. status inconsistency

b. her achieved status

A position that someone occupies such as a judge, astronaut, student, or professor is called:

a. a role
b. a class
c. a category
d. a status

d. a status

Bumper stickers such as "Proud Parent of an Honor Student' and "Warning: This Driver Convicted of DUI" are both best described as being:

a. status symbols
b. master status
c. negative sanctions
d. positive sanctions

a. status symbols

A position in a society that someone holds that cuts across other statuses they hold, such as being a high ranking Army officer, college president, or handicapped would be considered their:

a. ascribed status
b. social status
c. master status
d. status set

d. master status

The difference between status and role is that:

a. status identification is strictly enforced but roles are not
b. we occupy a status which is a social position but play a role which is a social expectation
c. status is voluntary and role is obligatory
d. status determines social position while role is not significant

b. we occupy a status which is a social position but play a role which is a social expectation

Those expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are:

a. folkways
b. roles
c. mores
d. simple norms

b. roles

People who regularly interact with one another and, usually share similar values, norms, and expectation are referred to as a(an):

a. aggregate
b. neighborhood
c. group
d. social institution

c. group

The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs are referred to as:

a. social institutions
b. social imperatives
c. social aggregates
d. social solidarity

a. social institutions

The notion that the mass media represents the varies interests of many groups would reflect a position consistent with ______ theory.

a. exchange
b. conflict
c. functionalist
d. symbolic interaction

c. functionalist

Basic needs a society must meet in order to survive that include replacement of members, preserving order, and socializing new members are referred to as:

a. functional requisites
b. cultural goals
c. societal mandates
d. symbolic needs

a. functional requisites

The social institution primarily responsible for the production and distribution of goods and services is the:

a. military
b. religious system
c. family
d. economic system

d. economic system

As society grow larger, they divide work among members based on some standardized characteristic such as age or sex. This is referred to as:

a. social solidarity
b. the social imperative
c. the division of labor
d. class structure

c. the division of labor

Ferdinand Tonnies' term for the type of society he referred to as "the intimate community" was ______. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was _____.

a. mechanical society; organic society
b. Gesellschaft; Gemeinschaft
c. organic society; mechanical society
d. Gemeinschaft; Gesellschaft

d. Gemeinschaft; Gesellshaft

When we meet someone, we often use stereotypes to make assumptions about what he/she is like as a person. These stereotypes:

a. are based on objective facts
b. are only important in some interactions
c. provide accurate information about what the person is like
d. can become a self-fulfilling prophecy

d. can become a self-fulfilling prophecy

You want to do well in the class but don't want to make your friends look bad. It is likely that you are experiencing:

a. role conflict
b. role confusion
c. role incompatibility
d. role strain

d. role strain

If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the:

a. peter principle
b. Thomas theorem
c. Ouichi principle
d. Garfinkel theorem

d. Thomas theorem

Which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?

a. select a topic, collect the data, review the literature, and share the results
b. review the literature, select a topic, collect the data, and choose a research method
c. chose a research method, select a topic, collect the data, and formulate a hypothesis
d. select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, and share the results

d. select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, and share the results

A hypothesis is a statement that expresses:

a. the purpose of the research
b. a predicted relationship between or among variables
c. the validity and reliability of the research method
d. the results of the research

d. a predicted relationship between or among variables

The term_____ refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.

a. validity
b. replication
c. reliability
d. duplication

c. reliability

The means by which sociologists collect data referred to as:

a. research methods
b. triangular methods
c. scientific evaluation
d. fieldwork

a research methods

Max wants to test his hypothesis that unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than men who are employed. He is most likely to us a(an) ______ analysis to test his hypothesis.

a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. discriminant
d. variable

b. quantitative

Andrea is doing research on the study of habits of students at Harvard University. The student body at Harvard will serve as Andrea's:
a. sample
b. population
c. stratifies random sample
d. fieldwork

b. population

In order to generalize your finding to a total population it is important to select a sample that is:

a. stratified
b. representative
c. valid and reliable
d. binomial

b. representative

When constructing a survey, it is best to phrase the survey's questions in such a way that:

a. an equal number of questions support the expected outcome as oppose it
b. they all support the expected outcome
c. they are neutral
d. they include the opportunity for respondent comment

c. they are neutral

During an interview, they best way to develop rapport with the respondents is to:

a. pay them i stipend for their cooperation
b. begin by asking them non-sensitive and non-threatening questions
c. tell them their answers are anonymous
d. pick fiends and acquaintances for the sample

b. begin by asking them non-sensitive and non-threatening questions

Jeff is doing marketing research for his publisher. He has gathered a portfolio of studies done by others that include the types of books college students prefer to read, their cost, format, and length. Jeff is using which research method?

a. fieldwork
b. secondary analysis
c. complete observation
d. a survey

d. secondary analysis

This multiple-choice examination provides a list of four possible answers to each question. In this sense, a multiple-choice exam incorporates:

a. open ended questions
b. closed ended questions
c. unstructured questions
d. biased questions

d. closed ended questions

Being unsure of the manner in which data is being used was gathered, its accuracy, and the training of the original researcher are problems most associated with:

a. secondary analysis
b. participant observation
c. experiments
d. interviews

a. secondary analysis

Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whiskey bottles in trashcans to measure the level of whiskey consumption in town. These researchers are using the _____ method of conducting research.

a. Documents research
b. Participant research
c. Survey research
d. Unobtrusive measures

d. unobtrusive measures

Which of the following methods is best suited for determining the existence of cause and effect relationships?

a. the survey
b. the experiment
c. participant observation
d. secondary analysis

b. the experiment

If an experiment were conducted to examine whether viewing pornography increased the likelihood of committing rape, the group that did NOT view pornographic films would be considered the _____ group.

a. independent
b. dependent
c. experimental
d. control

d. control

Research methods that emphasize measurement, numbers, and statistics are referred to as:

a. qualitative methods
b. quantitative methods
c. paramedic measures
d. non-paramedic measures

b. quantitative methods

A group of high school students take note of the fact that they are being observed by a class of Secondary Education majors. In an effort to mess with the heads of the observers, the high school students stick pencils in their ears and whistle "Dixie". This uncharacteristic behavior is and example of:

a. the peter principle
b. the Hawthorne effect
c. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
d. the Thomas theorem

b. the Hawthorne effect

Scully and Marolla's study of convicted rapists in prison was arranged so that half of the sample was interview by each of the researchers. The primary objective for applying this technique was to:

a. assure representativeness
b. reduce sample bias
c. reduce interview bias
d. minimize the effects of spuriousness

c. reduce interviewer bias

If a researcher were to steal someones else's work, he/she would be guilty of:

a. falsifying the results
b. betraying confidentiality
c. false replication
d. plagiarism

d. plagiarism

In their research on convicted rapists, Diana Scully and Joseph Marolla, concluded that:

a. rapists are more likely to believe rape myths
b. most rapists are sick
c. most rapists would never rape again
d. rapists are motivated by passion

a. rapists are more likely to believe in rape myths

People who interact with one another and think of themselves as belonging together are referred to as a(an):

a. aggregate
b. category
c. social frame
d. group

d. group

_______ societies are those societies with the fewest social divisions.

a. horticultural
b. hunting and gathering
c. pastoral
d. agricultural

b. hunting and gathering

With the domestication of plants and animals, a number of significant social changes occurred. Which of the following was NOT one of these?

a. a more specialized division of labor
b. groups increased in size and number
c. groups became more specialized
d. the elimination of shamans and priests

d. the elimination of shamans and priests

A (an) ______ society is one that is based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels.

a. horticultural
b. agricultural
c. post-industrial
d. industrial

d. industrial

The ____ is to the agricultural society as the _____ is to the postindustrial society.

a. plow; steam engine
b. printing press; steam engine
c. printing press; microchip
d. plow; microchip

d. plow; microchip

Intimate, long-term, face-to-face associations and cooperation characterize a:

a. secondary group
b. clique
c. primary group
d. community

c. primary group

Because secondary groups do not satisfy our human needs for intimate associations, these groups tend to:

a. eventually cease to exist
b. break down into primary groups
c. develop into out-groups
d. develop into reference groups

b. break down into primary groups

We judge the traits of our in-groups as virtues; those same traits are judged in out-groups as:

a. virtues
b. skills
c. attributes
d. vices

d. vices

Groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves are termed:

a. primary groups
b. secondary groups
c. voluntary groups
d. reference groups

d. reference groups

An important factor which contributes to the perpetuation of social inequality is the pervasiveness of:

a. formal organizations
b. social networks
c. social associations
d. community building

b. social networks

With respect to group size, George Simmel noted that:

a. as small groups grow larger, the become less stable
b. as small groups grow larger, they become more intimate
c. as small groups grow larger, they become more stable
d. marriages become less stable with the arrival of children

c. as small groups grow larger they become more stable

The smallest possible group is classified as a :

a. monopoly
b. dyad
c. triad
d. triangle

b. dyad

How groups influence us and how we affect groups is referred to as:

a. the Hawthorne effect
b. social solidarity
c. group dynamics
d. small group phenomenon

c. group dynamics

According to Simmel, which of the following groups is the most unstable?

a. triad
b. secondary group
c. dyad
d. primary group

c. dyad

Which of the following traits is least characteristic of a leader?

a. they represent the values of the group
b. they are able to lead groups out of crisis
c. they are more reserved and tend to say less
d. they express greater determination and self confidence

c. they are more reserved and tend to say less

As the instrumental leader of a group, your responsibility would be to:

a. convince others of the practicality of your ideas
b. keep the group moving toward its goals
c. maintain the harmony in the group
d. gain a consensus on everything

b. keep the group moving toward its goals

Groups in which members do less scapegoating and work at a steadier pace, even without supervision, are most likely headed by a(an) _____ leader.

a. laissez-faire
b. authoritative
c. dictatorial
d. democratic

d. democratic

Soloman Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that:

a. because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
b. Americans are highly individualistic to conform to group pressure.
c. women are more suseptible to group pressure than men
d. younger people are more susceptible to group pressure than older adults

a. because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true

Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that:

a. a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
b. most people conform to social norms, even when told to deviate from them by persons in authority
c. only emotionally disturbed persons enjoy inflicting pain on others
d. electric shock treatments improve student's ablities to learn.

a. a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority

When members of a group begin to narrow their thoughts and feel that there is only one correct answer to a situation, and when suggesting an alternative is seen as being disloyal to the group, sociologists would term this phenomenon:

a. brainwashing
b. groupthink
c. mental programming
d. group polarization

b. groupthink

_______ is an approach to life which there is an acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results.

a. traditionality
b. rationality
c. utilitariansim
d. laissez- faire

b. rationality

A traditional orientation to life emphasizes the notion that:

a. the past is the best guide for what to do in the present
b. the best guide for decision making should be based on efficiency
c. emotional sentiments have no place in the modern business world
d. work relationships should be governed by contractual agreements

a. the past is the best guide for what to do in the present

_______ was one of the first theorists to argue that the change to capitalist economic systems was responsible for the decline of traditional orientations to social life.

a. Max Weber
b. Karl Marx
c. Emile Durkheim
d. George Simmel

d. Karl Marx

A central feature of contemporary society is the increase in:

a. formal organizations
b. primary groups
c. informal organizations
d. reference groups

a. formal organizations

Comparing the "ideal type" characteristics of bureaucracy to and actual organization allows sociologists to determine:

a. the extent to which an organization has become bureaucratized
b. if an organization is efficient
c. if the members of an organization are alienated
d. if an organization is experiencing goal displacement

a. the extent to which an organization has become bureaucratized

George Ritzer maintains that the organizational features of the fast food industry have gradually seeped into many aspects of human social life. He describes this process as the:

a. rationalization of society
b. bureaucratization of society
c. walmartization of society
d. mcdonaldization of society

d. mcdonaldization of society

"Red tape" is a term which refers to:

a. rules and procedures which may impede the purpose of the organization
b. bureaucratic alienation
c. bureaucratic anomie
d. organizations in communist countries

a. rules and procedures which may impede the purpose of the organization

______ refers to the experience of being cut off from the products of a person's labor resulting in feelings of powerlessness.

a. anomie
b. alienation
c. displacement
d. rejection

b. alienation

Nick was a promising caseworker for the agency. After earning several lower level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick's ablities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the:

a. Kanter principle
b. Weber bureaucratic principle
c. Peter principle
d. Ouichi principle

c. peter principle

Recently, the March of Dimes shifted its focus from raising funds for combating polio to raising funds for birth defect research. Sociologists would term this shift in focus:

a. organizational pathology
b. goal displacement
c. goal conflict
d. organizational management

b. goal displacement

Bureaucracies are sociologically significant because they represent:

a. a new form of informal social organization
b. a fundamental change in how people relate to each other
c. the best way to accomplish all of society's goals
d. a way for individuals to feel a sense of belonging

b. a fundamental change in how people relate to each other

The boy scouts, Jim's Friday Night Poker LCube, the Kiwanis, Cathy's Coffee Klatch, and the Veterans of Foreign Wars are all examples of:

a. voluntary associations
b. formal organizations
c. bureaucracies
d. informal organizations

a. voluntary associations

Which of the following represents a function that would to virtually all voluntary organizations?

a. they mediate between the individual and the government
b. they offer people an identity
c. they bring people into the political mainstream
d. they generate social change

b. the offer people an identity

Michael's term, "the iron law of oligarchy" refers to:

a. the emergence of trained incapacity among organizational leaders
b. placing emphasis on organizational rules over organizational goals
c. the domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite
d. the McDonaldization of society

c. the domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite

According to Kanter, organizations sometimes showcase women and minorities by placing them in highly visible positions to demonstrate how "progressive" they are. These positions tends to be:

a. supervisory jobs with considerable power and autonomy
b. highly paid and directed toward "fast-track" promotions
c. jobs which allow little power or authority
d. highly competitive and sought after by colleagues

c. jobs which allow little power or authority

The _____ is a phenomenon that shapes people
s attitudes and, by extension, the quality of their work.

a. corporate culture
b. rules and regulations
c. structure
d. organization of command

a. corporate culture

Bob works at an automobile factory that organizes its workers into small groups that meet regularly to discuss ways to increase production and efficiency. Individual workers are often singled out and recognized for their contributions to the organization. These are examples of attempts to:

a. increase profits by down sizing
b. improve the quality of the company's products
c. increase the number of employees
d. humanize the work setting to develop potential

d. humanize the work setting to develop potential

People work more effectively in small groups than in a centralized command structure. The sociological explanation for this is:

a. small groups are more economically profitable than large groups
b. smaller groups experience less absenteeism than large groups
c. small groups form primary relationships, thereby reducing alienation
d. it is easier to supervise small groups than large groups

d. it is easier to supervise small groups than large groups

The Union Bank of Monterey, California measured the net cost of its day care. They found that the center was:

a. used only by a few employees
b. used by too many employees
c. costing the bank money to operate
d. saving the bank money to operate

d. saving the band money to operate

_______ theorists feel that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation.

a. functionalist
b. symbolic interactionists
c. conflict
d. labeling

c. conflict

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