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Protestant

The __ reformation is often dated from October 31, 1517

Martin Luther
Augustinian
Wittenberg

That was the day __, a German priest, and __ friar posted his 95 theses on the church door in the little German city of __ where he lived

Protesting
Indulgences

These theses were statements __ abuses, especially the abuse of __

Shorten

Indulgences were originally an acceptable way for people to __ penances they recieved in the sacrament of reconciliation

Indulgences

By Luther's day, the sale of __ had become a means of raising money for various purposes

Leo X
Peter's Basilica
Rome

Pope __ sold indulgences to raise money for the building of St. __ __ in __. Luther objected to this in particular

Indulgences
Papacy
Mass

Luther became increasingly radical in his opinions and began to question not only the value of __ but also the good works, the authority of the __, the ordained priesthood, the monastic life, and most of the sacraments

Bishops, popes, councils
Judge

By November 1518, Luther had also appealed to a church council. Later he declared that he didn't need __, __, or __ and appealed to scripture as his __

Excommunicated

He was __ by Leo X in 1520

Lutherans

We call the followers of Martin Luther __. Fighting broke out between Catholics and Lutherans

Minister
Family

In those areas of Germany where Lutherans won control, major changes occured in the religious like of the people. The local catholic parish church became the local Lutheran parish church headed not by a priest, but a __, who was often a married man with a __

Communion

The Latin mass was replaced by a __ service celebrated in German with participation by the congregation

2
Baptism and eucharist
Pope
Bishops

Lutherans generally recognized only __ sacraments, __ and __

Eucharist

Although Luther rejected the sacrafice of the mass, he believed firmly in the real presence of Christ in the __

Zurich
Bread
Symbol

Zwingli, a priest in the Swiss city of __, insisted that the Eucharist was only __, a __ to remind us of the last supper

Radical

Luther thought Zwingli was too __ but there were other Protestants who were even more radical

Anabaptists
Infants

These extremists were often __ because of their opposition to __ baptism

America
Pennsylvaia

Some anapabtist groups, such as the Amish and Mennonites, eventually emigrated to __, where the Quakers gave them refuge in colonial __

Calvin

Another Protestant leader was John __

Luther

Calvin had a fine mind, some would say sharper than __, and his ideas, not his personality, attracted followers

Faith
Bible

Of course he shared many of Luther's teachings, including his rejection of the Catholic church and his belief that salvation comes from __ alone and that the __ was supreme authority in religious matters

Calvin
Predestination
Heaven, hell

Unlike Luther, __ believed in double __, a grim doctrine according to which God chooses some people for __ and some for __

Change

For Calvin this is God's free decision, and nothing can be done to __ it

Eucharist

He also differed from Luther in rejecting the real presence of Christ in the __

Spiritually
Holy communion...

For Calvin, Christ becomes __ present to the recipient at the moment of recieving __

Elizabeth I

During the reign of Queen __, most English Calvanists reained members of the Church of England

Catholics

But they were reluctant members because they thought that this English Protestant church was too __

Puritans
Purify

They were called __ because of their desire to __ the church of England of such traditions as bishops, vestments, and an elaborate liturgy

Reformation

In fact, after 1550, Calvanism replaced Lutheranism as the leading edge of the Protestant __

Henry VIII
Defense of the 7 Sacraments

In 1521 King __ wrote, or claimed to write, a book entitled __ of the __ __

Faith

The pope was so grateful that he gave Henry the title defender of the __ which is still used by English monarchs today

Protestant

Unlike Luther and Calvin, Henry wasn't really a __

Doctrine
Papal
Personal

Henry VIII didn't deny any catholic __ and he rejected __ authority for __ rather than religious reasons

Rome

Under Henry VIII very little changed in the religion of England except for the break with __

Latin

Mass was still offered in __; the sacraments were still celebrated; the rythmn of parish life wasn't interrupted

One
Fisher
Rochester

Of all the bishops in England, only __ had the courage to challange the king, John __, bishop of __

Laity
More

Among the __ the leading opponent of Henry was Thomas __, the former Lond Chancellor

Executed

Both men paid a high price for their courage, the king __ them within weeks of each other in 1535

Catholic

When Henry VIII died in 1547, England was still basically a __ country

Edward VI

However, __ Henry's son, was only a child when he was crowned, and he and his advisors were devout __

Protestant

It was During the short reign of this boy king that the __ reformation was really introduced into England

Cranmer

The key figure in bringing about this change was Thomas __, the archbishop of Canterbury, who now had a free hand to make the changes that he dared not attempt while Henry was alive

Communion

Under Cranmer's leadership the mass was now replaced with a __ service in English

Common

Cranmer composed a beautiful liturgy based on the Book of __ Prayer which he compiled

Christ

However no catholic could accept it because it rejected both the sacrifice of the mass and belief in the real presence of __ in the Eucharist

MAry Tudor

After the death of Edward VI a conservative reaction brough to the throne Henry's daughter __

Catholicism
Force

She wanted to restore __ in England but unfortunately she tried to do it largely by __

Elizabeth I

She died without an heir leaving the crown to her half sister __ who was to reign for 45 years

Politicial

She was a strong ruler and skilled politician who wanted religious peace through __ compromise

Protestant

Then she set about fashioning a middle of the road Protestant church in England. The doctrine of this new church was solidly __

Archbishops
Bishops

However Elizabeth left intact the catholic form of church government with __ and __

Bloody Mary

Mary Tudor excecuted 273 protestants and became known as __

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