An arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea
A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit.
A series of rulers from a single family.
The spread of cultural elements from one society to another
belief in multiple Gods
a group of countries under a single authority
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.
flat, low-lying land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth
ruler of Ancient Egypt
embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy
a system of writing using symbols or pictures
ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant
a seasonal wind in southern Asia
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
a fertile deposit of windblown soil
One of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with the gods.
mandate of heaven
in Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
an event resulting in great loss and misfortune
A group of traders traveling together, often through the desert.
To bring together as one
a place for the burial of a corpse (especially beneath the ground and marked by a tombstone)
fighting between people within their own country
the system of making and trading things.
A bowl like area for storing water
set apart from others
A flat area that rises above the land close by.
A waterway made by humans
march aggressively into another's territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation
a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft
a hard smooth ivory colored dentine that makes up most of the tusks of elephants and walruses
A precious stone that is usually green
A person of high birth
an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization
someone employed to make written copies of documents and manuscripts
something that stands for something else
abstaining from food
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
a material effigy that is worshipped as a god
Holy book of Islam
The money or care that one gives to the poor and the needy
The pilgrimmage to Mecca that is a religious duty of all Muslims
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
able to spread from one person to another
extra of anything.
A muslim place of worship
One who does not belive in the religion another person believes in.
A person who someone owns and treats like property
The people who lead a religion
A fight by people against a government, a struggle for change
the revival of learning and culture
the doctrine that people's duty is to promote human welfare
A play to act out on a stage
A 14 line poem about one idea
A painting done in wet plaster on a wall
A person who supports the arts with money
A drawing of a person
A small church
the home of the pope.