Unit 16 Urinary System

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-uria

condition of the urine

dia-

through; across

-cele

hernia, swelling

cyst/o

urinary bladder

-ectasis

dilatation or distension of a hollow organ

glomerul/o

glomerulus (little ball)

lith/o

stone, calculus (calcium)

-lysis

breakdown, destruction, separation

nephr/o

means kidney

-pexy

surgical fixation

pyello

pelvis

ren/a

clean, pure

-tripsy

process of crushing

ureter/o

ureter (tube from kidney to bladder)

urethr/o

urethra (tube from bladder to outside body)

anuria

inability to urinate

catheterization

insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye

cystalgia

pain in the urinary bladder

cystectomy

excision/removal of the bladder

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters

cystocele

hernia in which the urinary bladder protrudes through the wall of the vagina

cystography

radiographic imaging of the bladder

cystolith

a calculus formed in the bladder

cystopexy

the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

cystorrhagia

hemorrhage of the bladder

cystorrhaphy

suturing the bladder

cystoscopy

visual examination of the urinary bladder

diuresis

increased secretion of urine

diuretics

medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt

dysuria

painful or difficult urination

enuresis

inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination

epispadias

a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis

glomerulonephritis

nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney

glomerulus

a small intertwined group of capillaries in the malpighian body

hemodialysis

dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream

homeostasis

metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes

hydronephrosis

accumulation of urine in the kidney because of an obstruction in the ureter

hydroureter

the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

hypospadias

an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis

incontinence

involuntary urination or defecation

interstitial cystitis

chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

lithotomy

surgical removal of a stone (calculus)

lithotripsy

surgical crushing of a stone

meatotomy

surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening

micturition

the discharge of urine

nephrectasis

the distention of the pelvis of the kidney

nephritis

an inflammation of the kidney

nephrolith

a calculus formed in the kidney

nephrolithiasis

the presence of kidney stones (calculi) in the kidney

nephrolithotomy

incision into the kidney for the removal of stones

nephrologist

a specialist in the study of the kidneys

nephrolysis

separating the kidney (from other body structures)

nephropathy

a disease affecting the kidneys

nephropexy

surgical fixation of the kidney

nephroptosis

prolapse of the kidney

nephropyosis

discharge or formation of pus in the kidney

nephrosis

a disease affecting the kidneys

nephrostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the kidney

nephrotic syndrome

a syndrome characterized by edema and large amounts of protein in the urine and usually increased blood cholesterol

nocturia

excessive urination at night

oliguria

production of an abnormally small amount of urine

paraspadias

a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis

peritoneal dialysis

procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unable to do so

polyuria

renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine

pyelitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyelogram

an X ray of the kidneys and ureters

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection

pyeloplasty

surgical repair of the renal pelvis

pyelotomy

surgical incision into the renal pelvis

suprapubic

name of abdominal region just superior to pubic bone

uremia

accumulation in the blood of nitrogen-bearing waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine

ureterectasis

dilation of the ureter

ureterectomy

excision/removal of the ureter

ureterolith

stone in the ureter

ureteroplasty

surgical repair of a ureter

ureterorrhagia

the discharge of blood from the ureter

ureterorrhaphy

surgical suturing of a ureter

ureterostenosis

stenosis of the ureter

urethralgia

pain in the urethra

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra

urethropexy

surgical fixation of the urethra

urethroplasty

surgical repair of the urethra

urethrorrhagia

bleeding from the urethra

urethrorrhaphy

suturing of the urethra

urethrorrhea

an abnormal discharge from the urethra

urethrostenosis

narrowing of the urethra

urethrostomy

surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

urethrotomy

a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture

urography

Process of taking x-ray images of the urinary tract after injecting contrast.

vesicovaginal fissure

an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina

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