By 1780s a reaction had emerged in Europe against the well-ordered world embraced by Enlightenment thinkers. Much in life cannot be explained by reason and logic according to this movement. More emphasis on individualism
Sir Walter Scott (Ivanhoe)
Romantics showed great interest in the Middle Ages (an era scorned by Enlightenment thinkers)
Thomas Cole, Asher Durand, Thomas Doughty
romantic artists that favored America's wild and misty landscapes which often evoked more than they showed
Hudson River School of American Art
Cole, Durand and Doughty painted this type of art
this guy defined romanticism in his book "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781). Stressed the limits of human science and reason. People are justified in having faith.
Transcendentalist Movement of New England
represented the most intense American expression of Kant's view of romanticism.
1836, adherents of Transcendentalism formed this club in Boston and Concord.
Members of Transcendental Club
authors Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, ministers Theodore Parker, George Ripley, Jmes Freeman Clarke and learned women Elizabeth and Sophia Peabody, Margaret Fuller.
quarterly review published the Transcendental Club. Margaret Fuller edited for first two years, Ralph Waldo Emerson for the last two years. 1840 1844
High Priest of Transcendentalists
nick name for Ralph Waldo Emerson
American Scholar (1837)
Emerson wrote this essay, summarizing the ideas of his first book "Nature." Urged Americans to put aside awe of Europe. America's intellectual Declaration of Independence
by Emerson. Set forth a pantheistic philosophy in which souls of humans commune with great universal soul
Self Reliance (1841)
by Emerson. Stressed individualism and the cultivation of one's own personality.
"A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers" (1849) and "Walden, or Life in the Woods" (1854) and an essay "Civil Disobedience" 1849. This guy rejected scramble for wealth