AP EURO FULL EXAM REVIEW

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This is EVERY term from EVERY review sheet we have. You are welcome

Nicholas II

Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.

Alexandra

Last Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars

Grigori Rasputin

a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.

Alexander Kerensky

An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.

Anton Denikin

Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and foremost general for the White Russians in the Russian civil war.

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)

opponent of Tsarist Russia, began to immerse himself in Marxian socialist ideas as a law student. He then went on to form the Bolsheviks, and tried to start a revolution in July 1917. It failed, he went into hiding, but regrouped in Petrograd, where he and his partner Trotsky gained power. He then moved on government buildings, and was declared the head of the new Bolshevik government.

Leon Trotsky

Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution

Nikolai Bukharin

Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP

Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin)

Dictator of Russia, named man of steel. Was of lowly backgrounds but rose to power. Only in it for himself. Created 5 year plans.

Sergei Kirov

A Political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin

Benito Mussolini

Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.

Victor Emmanuel III

King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator

Heinrich Brüning

The German chancellor during the Weimar Republic who convinced the president to accept rule by decree

Adolf Hitler

Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.

Karl Lueger

Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized

Hermann Göring

A Nazi politician and president of the Reichstag

Rudolf Hess

Deputy to Hitler in the Nazi party person who dictated Mein Kampf

Joseph Goebbels

Chief minister of the Nazi propaganda, and organizer of Kristallnacht

Paul von Hindenburg

President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933

Franz von Papen

Chancellor of Germany who succeeded Bruning

Heinrich Himmler

Inhumane and cruel leader of the SS in Germany, appointed by Hitler

Neville Chamberlain

Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement

Francisco Franco

Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini

Antonio de Oliveira Salzar

served as the Prime Minister and dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.

Josef Pilsudaski

was the authoritarian ruler of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the broader European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after a hundred and twenty-three years of partitions

Béla Kun

was a Hungarian Communist politician who ruled Hungary as leader of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919

Elie Halévy

was a French philosopher and historian who wrote Era of Tyrannies, which talked about the different kinds of government and how they all stemmed out of nature of modern war.

Henri-Philippe Pétain

French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.

Reasons for Russian weakness

These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army

Duma

Russia's lower house of politics

Relationship between Alexandra & Rasputin / Rasputin's assassination

He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.

Russian (March) Revolution/ Provisional Government

The revolution of the unplanned overthrowing of the Tsarist government, and the government that followed the revolution.

Petrograd Soviet

the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with

Army Order Number 1

Given by the Provisional Government, this stripped the army officers of power, and placed it in hand of elected committees. This collapsed army discipline

Bolsheviks/Mensheviks

The two rival communists groups. One weree true revolutionary Marxists, and the other were revisionist socialists.

Bolshevik (October) Revolution

Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI

"White" forces

The opposition to the Bolsheviks and the Red army after the October rebellion and the Russian Revolution

Reasons for Bolshevik victory

Three reasons anarchy was about and any person could create power; the Bolsheviks had better leaders; the Bolsheviks appealed to many workers

War Communism

The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict

Cheka

The old Tsarist secret police

Totalitarianism

is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism. These states always have to be at war with something

Conservative Authoritarianism

Traditional form of antidemocratic government

Radical Dictatorships

leaders who violently rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values, as well as exercised unprecedented control over masses and sought to mobilize them for war.

Kronstadt Rebels

Unsuccessful uprising of sailors, soldiers, and civilians against Russian government (against Bolsheviks)

New Economic Policy

Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry

Stalin's rise

He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party

Five Year plans - objectives, methods & success

Objectives were to increase industrial output by 250% and agriculture output by 150% and have 1/5 of Russian peasants on collective farms. The methods were forced farming and scare tactics like gulags. The success was that of industry, which produced 4 times as much as before

Soviet quality of life

Life was hard, there was no improvement in the average standard of living, but unemployment was unknown and communism had real appeal

Collectivization

Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity

Kulaks

The well off peasants who were starved or shipped to the gulags

Ukrainian Famine

The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain

Stalinization of culture

The acceptance of Stalin though propaganda

Great Purges

Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against

"Socialism in one country"

Idea that the Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own

Women in totalitarian states

They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights

Comintern

was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."

Fascism

is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.

Mussolini's Rise - role of Black Shirts

These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy

Lateran Agreement

In this, Mussolini recognized the Vatican as an independent state, and gave it heavy financial support

Hitler's Rise

Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there

Beer Hall Putsch

An armed uprising in Munich of maybe 50 people at most, crushed, Hitler's idea

Mein Kampf

Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer

Hitler's goals

He wanted to declare the superiority of Aryan race, create more living space for them, and make himself eternal supreme dictator for life

Lebensraum

(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.

Nazi racial theories

Felt that Aryan white people were most superior, Scandinavian were 2nd best, French were 3rd, and the slavs, jews, and pretty much the rest were the worst

Reichstag fire & fallout

Hitler used this to launch his dictatorship and used this to give him power. It was a fire of a capital building

Enabling Act

Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years

Nuremburg Laws

Laws that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent

Kristallnacht

A night of violence and vandalism against Jews

Hitler's Popularity - how popular & why

Hitler was popular for promising economic recovery and delivering

Goldhagen Thesis

This said that ordinary Germans not only knew about, but also supported, the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist" anti-Semitism in the German identity, which had developed in the preceding centuries

Rhineland remilitarization

when Germany moved into the Rhineland and beefed up the military, Britain and France still wanted appeasement and did nothing

Appeasement

The idea that Britain could pacify Germany and make sure there was no war at any cost.

Austrian Anschluss

The forceful union of Austria into Germany

Hitler's Foreign Policy

Made friends with Italy, did stuff behind the table with Russia, and hated everyone else.

Sudetenland

The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.

Munich Conference

An agreement/conference that gave Germany the Sudetenland

Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

The three countries of Italy, Germany, and Japan allied together

Polish Corridor

The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other

Grand Alliance - members & goals

The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia

Course of WWII

First war in Europe, then war in Asia

Dunkirk

A mass flee of British troops of the coast of France, disaster, lost thousands of machines and vehicles

Stalingrad

Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed

El Alamein

Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria

Sicily

An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later

D-Day

The most important battle in the European part of the war, allies stormed beaches and made it through to the mainland, landing in France and moving towards Germany

Midway

An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers

Iwo Jima

One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan

Final Solution / Holocaust

was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European Jewry during World War II, resulting in the final, most deadly phase of the Holocaust

A-bombs - Hiroshima, Nagasaki

The final straw for the Japanese, resulting in millions of civilian and military death. Little Boy and Fat Man were used here. These flew on the plane "The Enola Gay"

One man, one plan, one mustache

The amazing movie that dictates the life and failure of Hitler

Paul Valéry

French poet and critic that spoke of a "crisis of the mind," and "a dark future for Europe"

Friedrich Nietzsche

German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.

Georges Sorel

A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Was an Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."

Henri Bergson

A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking

Jean Paul Sartre

A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.

Søren Kierkegaard

Danish religious philosopher who made a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic god, after rejecting formalistic religion

Karl Barth

A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient.

Gabriel Marcel

Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics

Marie Curie

A Polish physicist who, with French husband Pierre, discovered radium emits subatomic particles

Albert Einstein

German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity

Max Planck

German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"

Werner Heisenberg

A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.

Sigmund Freud

The love of my life. Said that there were three points were man was stripped of his specialness. Copernicus said that man was not center of universe; Darwin said that man is not God's special creation; and Freud said that man is savage. Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious. His most controversial idea was that all humans are sexual beings and have sexual desires. Then he said there were three phases of human development the Oral phase, the Anal phase, and the Oedipal phase. After WWI it became ok to talk about Freud's ideas.

James Joyce

An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book

Oswald Spengler

an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians.

Walter Gropius

German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron

Claude Monet

a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting

Pierre Auguste Renoir

a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting

Vincent Van Gogh

A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"

Paul Gaugin

French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific

Paul Cézanne

A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form

Henrí Matisse

An extreme abstract expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form

Pablo Picasso

a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes

Wassily Kandinski

Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art

Igor Stravinsky

composer, wrote Rite of Spring, expressionist ballet, shocked crowds because of music and scenes

Alban Berg

composer of opera Wozzeck, atonal music with half spoken, half sung dialogue, violence and expression

Arnold Schönberg

Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones

John Maynard Keynes

Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.

Raymond Poincaré

French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations

Gustav Stresemann

German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr

Leon Blum

Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems

Psycho-social impact of WWI

Social Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war

Logical Empiricism

The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.

Existentialism

The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.

Christian Revival

Was a reaction to the loss of faith in humans, which came from the war, and lead to renewed interest in Christian view of the world. Major people were Kierkegaard, Barth, and Marcel.

The New Physics

Pioneered by the Curies, Plank and Einstein, a new view of physics that shattered the perfect world of Newtonian physics and made the world seem much more random and not as much certainty.

Uncertainty Principle

The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.

Id, Ego, Superego

Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.

Oedipal Complex

A Freudian physiological idea that if you did not get over loving your parent of the opposite sex, you would have this complex where you hated your other parent and have issues with parental relations.

Stream-of-Consciousness

Literary technique that explored the psyche through different idea randomly bubbling up in a story.

Functionalism

A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best

Bauhaus

A Weimar (German) architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism

Impressionism

An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing

Post-Impressionism

An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.

Cubism

An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.

Abstract-Expressionism

An artistic movement that focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes.

Dadaism

An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.

Surrealism

An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images

British-French Tensions

differences between French and British were over the treatment of the Germans, specifically on the payment of reparations

The Little Entente

The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.

Ruhr Crisis 1923

When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations

Hyperinflation

When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day

Dawes Plan

The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible

Locarno Pact / Spirit of Locarno

The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Was a pact that said that just said was bad, but did not outline any method for preventing war.

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