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These cards review the vocabulary related to biology's central dogma, DNA to RNA to Protein. Made for Rauner College Prep.

Cell Cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

G1

first phase of interphase; cell grows in size

S

second phase of interphase; genetic material makes a second copy (DNA Replication)

G2

The final period of interphase during which the cell prepares for mitosis.

Mitosis

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Prophase

the first stage of mitosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes

Metaphase

the second stage of mitosis. The chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and line up in the center of the cell.

Anaphase

The third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

Telophase

the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

Cytokinesis

The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.

Deoxyribonucleic acid

A nucleic acid found in all living cells which carries the organism's hereditary information. Also known as DNA.

Double Helix

two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA

Nucleotide

building block of a nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)

Adenine

The purine base that pairs with Thymine in DNA. Also known as "A"

Guanine

The purine base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA. Also known as "G"

Cytosine

The pyrimidine base that pairs with Guanine in DNA. Also known as "C"

Thymine

The pyrimidine base that pairs with Adenine in DNA. Also known as "T"

Chagaff's rule

In DNA: A pairs with T; C pairs with G
In RNA: A pairs with U; C pairs with G

DNA replication

the process of making a copy of DNA. Occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.

Chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information (DNA) that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

Gene

(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a protein.

Ribosome

an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell. This organelle is the site of protein synthesis.

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up the ribosome

Uracil

a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine

Transcription

the cellular process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

Translation

the cellular process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

Amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules. Amino acids connect together to build protein (polypeptide) strands

Protein

a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.

Mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

Substitution Mutation

A single nucleotide is replaced by a different nucleotide; this type of mutation does NOT result in a frameshift mutation.

Insertion Mutation

One or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation.

Deletion Mutation

One or more nucleotides are taken away from a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation

Silent Mutation

A mutation that changes the codon triplet of nucleotides; however, the codon still codes for the same protein as before the mutation.

Frameshift

an error in the DNA in which the entire reading frame is altered; caused by an insertion or deletion. This can create early stop codons and drastically change the resulting protein, which could render the protein useless.

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