Sociology Final

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Using a sociological perspective encourages

accepting conventional ideas.
challenging common sense, myths, and misconceptions.
seeing society as unpredictable.
people to become happier.
all of the above are correct.

challenging common sense, myths, and misconceptions.

Bill is a sociologist who studies poverty. He understands that an individual's poverty status is the result of larger economic situations and unemployment rates in the local community rather than the individual's personal problem. Bill is utilizing his

macrosociology.
microsociology.
research methodology.
common sense.
sociological imagination.

sociological imagination.

_____, who coined the term "sociology," is also known as the "father of sociology."

Auguste Comte
Emile Durkheim
Karl Marx
C. Wright Mills
Max Weber

Auguste Comte

Emile Durkheim, in his studies of suicide, found that _____, and concluded that _____ accounted for the variation in suicide rates.

males are more likely than females to commit suicide; social structure

females are more likely than males to commit suicide; social structure

males are more likely than females to commit suicide; social integration

females are more likely than males to commit suicide; social integration

none of the above

males are more likely than females to commit suicide; social integration

Which of the following major historical events strongly influenced Karl Marx?

The Enlightenment
Discovery of the New World
The French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
World War I

The Industrial Revolution

Karl Marx believed that the key element in understanding human history and social change is to understand

family and its functions.
the role of education.
class conflict.
the importance of religion.
social organization.

class conflict

Unlike Marx, _____ focused on social organization, rather than the economy, to explain society.

Addams
Comte
Durkheim
Martineau
Weber

Weber

This early sociologist helped to found the NAACP and was himself a prominent Black sociologist.

W.E.B. DuBois
Booker T. Washington
Jesse Martin
Donald Black
George Herbert Mead

W.E.B. DuBois

Which of the following statements best exemplifies functionalist theory?

Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.

Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.

Gender inequality is the major source in inequality in society.

People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.

None of the above exemplifies the functionalist theory.

Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.

Which of the following statements best exemplifies conflict theory?

Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.

Which of the following statements best exemplifies symbolic interactionist theory?

Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.

Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.

Gender inequality is the major source in inequality in society.

People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.

None of the above exemplifies the symbolic interactionist theory

People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.

Which of the following is true regarding social research being value free?

Social researchers must be value free from topic selection through the interpretation of data.

Social researchers always aim for being value free, but if they fail to meet that standard it is not such a big deal.

Although the topic selection may be subjective, the research must maintain objectivity when collecting, analyzing and interpreting data.

All of the above are true about social research.

None of the above is true about social research.

Although the topic selection may be subjective, the research must maintain objectivity when collecting, analyzing and interpreting data.

In her research project, Megan is measuring age, gender, GPA, and study habits. Age, gender, GPA and study habits are examples of

social inequality.
variables.
characteristics.
assets.
social issues.

variables

Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of the scientific method?

Literature review, topic selection, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results

Topic selection, collect data, analyze results, literature review, analyze results

Literature review, collect data, formulate hypothesis, analyze results

Topic selection, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results, present findings

Topic selection, literature review, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results

Topic selection, literature review, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results

Joanna is conducting a research project that examines whether parent's income impacts a child's choice of college. Joanna thinks that parents who make a lot of money will have children who will attend private schools and parents who make little money will have children who will attend public schools. "Parent's income" is the _____ in Joanna's

project.
validity
reliability
hypothesis
independent variable
dependent variable

independent variable

Gretchen is conducting a research project and is interviewing respondents about their fertility history. On the first day her respondent says that she has had three children. However, the next day, the respondent reports that she has only two children. This is an example of a problem with

validity.
reliability.
hypotheses.
variables.
methods.

reliability

If the researcher and the respondent interpret a research question differently, there is a problem with

reliability.
validity.
deduction.
accuracy.
objectivity.

validity

Ryan is examining children's books as part of a research project on gender images in the media. Ryan is using which of the following research approaches?

quantitative research
qualitative research
deductive research
inductive research
none of the above

qualitative research

Every ten years, the U.S. Census Bureau mails forms to every home in the United States to collect federally mandated data. The Census Bureau is using which of the following data collection methods?

secondary analysis
field research
experiment
survey
evaluation research

survey

Connor is reviewing birth and death certificates for persons living in Jefferson County. Connor is using which data collection method?

survey
evaluation research
secondary analysis
experiment
field research

secondary analysis

Marcus used a deductive approach to examine the relationship between two variables. Which of the following best represents a deductive approach?

theory --> hypothesis --> observation --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

theory --> observation --> hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

observation --> theory --> hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis --> theory --> observation

hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis --> observation --> theory

theory --> hypothesis --> observation --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

For sociologists, culture refers to which of the following?

values
beliefs
behaviors
all of the above

values
beliefs
behaviors

Symbols, values, norms and beliefs are

examples ofcultural boundaries.
nonmaterial culture.
material culture.
primitive culture.
subversive culture.

nonmaterial culture

A stop sign, a wedding dress, and a handshake are examples of

mores.
transitions.
symbols.
signs.
culture.

symbols

_____ are the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, desirable or undesirable.

Languages
Norms
Mores
Values
Sanctions

values

Norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment are

folkways.
mores.
laws.
sanctions.
rules.

folkways

According to our textbook, marriage, medicine, and modesty are examples of George Murdock's

cultural changes.
cultural differences.
cultural universals.
cultural competencies.
cultural variations.

cultural universals

_____ is the belief that one's culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups.

Counterculturism
Subculturism
Superculturism
Ethnocentrism
Cultural relativism

ethnocentrism

_____ is recognizing that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards.

Darwinism
Ethnocentrism
Cultural relativism
Subculturism
Multiculturalism

cultural relativism

_____ refers to the coexistence of many cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.

Ethnocentism
Cultural relativism
Multiculturalism
Metaculturalism
Popular culture

multiculturalism

Which of the following statements best exemplifies the functionalist perspective on culture?

Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.

Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.

Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women.

Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.

none of the above

Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.

Which of the following statements best exemplifies the conflict perspective on culture?

Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.

Culture creates inequality because those in
power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.

Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women.

Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.

none of the above

Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.

Adrian, from the time he was born, began learning how to think and behave effectively in society. He learned language, norms, and values first from his parents and then from his peers. Adrian went through a process of
learning.
socialization.
culture.
resocialization.
nurturing.

socialization

Socialization controls behavior because of

sociobiology
integration
institutionalization
internalization
nurture

internalization

Dr. Harry Harlows' experiments with infant monkeys concluded that

orphaned monkeys needed more attention than those with mothers.

biology affects behavior.

nourishment was more important than warmth and comfort.

warmth and comfort were more important than nourishment.

none of the above

warmth and comfort were more important than nourishment.

In terms of nature vs. nurture argument, most sociologists would agree with which of the following statements?
Nature's influence on human development is constant; nurture's influence fluctuates over the life course.

Nature can explain all human behavior.

Nurture can explain all human behavior.

Nurture affects human development, but nature is more significant.

Nature affects human development, but nurture is more significant.

Nature affects human development, but nurture is more significant.

Which of the following theoretical approaches is most commonly used to understand socialization?

functionalism
conflict
feminist
symbolic interactionism
None of the above are used to understand socialization.

symbolic interactionism

Which of the following is the appropriate order of Cooley's phases of the "looking-glass self?"

perception, interpretation, response
perception, response, interpretation
perception, initiation, response
preparatory, play, game
play, game, preparatory

perception, interpretation, response

According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to take the role of important people in their lives, especially parents, as they model themselves after them. Mead referred to these important people as

role models
looking-glass models
significant others
the generalized other
authority figures

significant others

Tasha is preparing for her first date with Bobby. She is very excited because Bobby is the captain of the football team. Before the date, she showers, applies make-up, and buys an expensive new outfit. Tasha's preparation is an example of Goffman's

imitation stage.
the self.
impression management.
setting control.
manner.

impression management

Troy encourages his daughters to work hard and rewards their work with complements and occasional gifts. Troy's parenting style is

authoritarian.
authoritative.
permissive.
uninvolved.
maternal.

authoritative

_____ is the process of unlearning old ways of doing things and adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.

The self-fulfilling prophecy
Resocialization
Socialization
The "looking-glass self"
Anticipatory socialization

re-socialization

In the article "The Sociological Imagination" by C. Wright Mills, the sociological perspective is

how biology influence human lives.

how natural environment influence human lives.

how social and historical structures influence human lives.

None of the above.

how social and historical structures influence human lives.

The main idea of Peter Berger's article "Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective" is that the beauty of sociology is to unmask the taken-for-granted common beliefs about social reality.

true
false

true

The major research method in article "Between Good and Ghetto: African American Girls and Inner-City Violence" by Nikki Jones is:

survey
interview
field work
participant observation

participant observation

Which of the following is (are) main findings in the article "Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood" by Ann Meier and Gina Allen?

nearly two-thirds of adolescents have some romantic relationship experience.

there is differences in adolescents relationship experiences by race.

both a and b are correct.

none of the above is correct.

nearly two-thirds of adolescents have some romantic relationship experience.
there is differences in adolescents relationship experiences by race.

In the article "Gamers, Hackers, and Facebook --- Computer Cultures, Virtual Community, and Postmodern Identity", the author Ross Haenfler regards cyberspace interactions as a subculture.

true
false

true

What concepts from Chapter 3 - Culture can we apply in the article "Global Culture" by Manfred Steger?

Globalization
Cultural infusion
Cultural imperialism
All of the above.

Globalization
Cultural infusion
Cultural imperialism

In the article "Leaving Home for College: Expectations for Selective Reconstruction of Self" is a process of ______.

primary socialization
role taking
looking glass self
adulthood socialization

adulthood socialization

The main idea in article "Gender and Ageism" by Laurie Hatch is ______

if you are a woman and old, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a man and old, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a woman and young, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a man and young, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a woman and old, you experience the most prejudice.

Which of the following is not one of the key characteristics of social interaction?

Social interaction is central to all human social activity.

People respond to a situation differently depending on what they think is at stake for them.

Social interaction is similar across time and place.

People influence each other's behavior through interaction.

Elements of social structure affect all interaction and can produce different personal outcomes.

Social interaction is similar across time and place.

_____ is an organized pattern of behavior that governs people's relationships.

Social interaction
Social structure
Status
Master status
Role

social structure

Keri is a mother, a parole officer, and a softball player. These positions make up Keri's

role set.
status set.
master statuses
achieved statuses.
ascribed statuses.

status set

_____ statuses are those that we cannot change, control or choose.

Master
Achieved
Ascribed
Role
Social

ascribed

_____ statuses are those that we can change, control or choose through effort or actions.

Master
Achieved
Ascribed
Role
Social

achieved

_____ are the behaviors expected of people who have a particular status.

Role sets
Status sets
Roles
Symbols
Signals

roles

Cameron was scheduled to work on Thursday from 9:00am until 3:00pm. His sociology final was scheduled for 2:00 pm. Cameron was likely experiencing

role sets.
role strain.
role conflict.
role sprain.
role tension.

role conflict

"Human reality is socially constructed reality." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?

symbolic interaction
social exchange
feminist theories
functionalist
social learning

symbolic interation

_____ suggests that any social interaction between two people is based on each person's trying to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs.

Dramaturgical analysis
Symbolic interactionism
Feminist theory
Social exchange theory
Ethnomethodology

social exchange theory

"Interaction often involves a dominant-subordinate relationship." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?

symbolic interaction
social exchange
feminist theories
functionalist
social learning

feminist theories

Timothy and Kiley were asked to violate a norm by their sociology professor. They choose to go to the mall and use the up-escalator to go down and the down-escalator to go up. They watched the reactions of others and wrote a paper describing the experience. Which methodological tool were Timothy and Kiley using?

dramaturgical analysis
secondary analysis
participant observation
conduct testing
ethnomethodology

ethnomethodology

"Actions speak louder than words." This statement represents which concept of social interaction?

dramaturgical analysis
ethnomethodology
nonverbal communication
silence
facial expressions

nonverbal communication

In As You Like It, Shakespeare wrote that "All the world is a stage and all the men and women merely players." This illustrates which concept?

self-fulfilling prophecy
Thomas theorem
dramaturgical analysis
social construction of reality
ethnomethodology

dramaturgical analysis

Which of the following is not a criterion of a social group?

persons who interact with one another

persons who share a common identity

persons who share a sense of belonging

None of the above are characteristics of a social group.

All of the above are criteria of a social group.

persons who interact with one another
persons who share a common identity
persons who share a sense of belonging
None of the above are characteristics of a social group.
All of the above are criteria of a social group.

_____ groups meet our expressive (or emotional) needs; _____ groups meet our instrumental (or task-oriented) needs.

In; out
Out; in
Secondary; primary
Primary; secondary
Primary; in

primary; secondary

_____ are those that share a sense of identity and exclude and devalue outsiders.

In-groups
Out-groups
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Reference groups

in-groups

_____ are those people who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as being different.

In-groups
Out-groups
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Reference groups

out-groups

A/n _____ is a group that shapes our behavior, values and attitudes, and influences who we'd like to be in the future.

in-group
out-group
primary group
secondary group
reference group

reference group

Asch's studies, in which subjects were asked to match lines on cards, showed that

people tend to see most things differently.

people often lie to those who have authority.

group membership generates conformity.

leaders compete for power in social groups.

All of the above are correct.

group membership generates conformity

Groupthink is

choosing the path of least resistance when working with others.

attempting to persuade others to agree with you.

a software program that predicts group behavior.

a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures.

a decision-making process where an individual weighs group decisions against his/her own before making a decision.

a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures. f. a decision-making process where an individual weighs group decisions against his/her own before making a decision.

_____ are webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.

Social muddles
Social networks
Social systems
Social interactions
Social organisms

social networks

A _____ is a complex and structured secondary group that is deliberately created to achieve a specific goal in an efficient manner.

primary group
secondary group
formal group
formal organization
primary organization

formal organization

A _____ is a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people.

voluntary association
formal association
bureaucracy
government
civil organization

bureaucracy

At the Barkley Company, there are forty employees. Addison is the President and CEO. Below her, Jack and Ross, are managers. The thirty-seven others work below the managers in the storeroom or on the show floor. Which of Weber's ideal characteristics does this exemplify?

high degree of division of labor and specialization

hierarchy of authority

explicit written rules and regulations

impersonality

qualification based employment

hierarchy of authority

In applying to three colleges, Layla spent several days completing nearly identical forms. Each asked for her high school grades, roommate preferences, and parent's financial status. This is an example of which of the shortcomings of bureaucracies?

a weak reward system

bureaucratic ritualism

alienation

Parkinson's Law

Peter Principle

bureaucratic ritualism

Income, status and other rewards allow some owners and managers to exploit workers. This statement exemplifies which major theoretical perspective?

Functionalism
conflict theory
symbolic interactionism
exchange theory
feminist theory

conflict theory

_____ is behavior that violates expected rules or norms.

Crime
Deviance
Stigma
Social control
Sanction

deviance

A/n _____ is a negative label that devalues a person and disqualifies him/her from full
social acceptance.

harm
injurious
stigma
social control
dishonor

stigma

_____ refer(s) to the technique and strategies that regulate people's behavior in society.

Sanctions
Social control
Strain
Anomie
Labeling

social control

Sanctions are

endorsements of certain behaviors.

forms of conformity that are written into law.

inconsistent forms of punishment.

rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.

none of the above

rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.

_____ believe that deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure that maintain society.

Functionalists
Conflict theorists
Feminist theorists
Symbolic interactionists
Criminologists

functionalists

Durkheim introduced the term anomie, but _____ elaborated on the concept to explain how social structure can create deviance.

Sutherland
Bogel
Merton
Becker
Lembert

Merton

According to Merton, Americans are taught to strive towards the "American Dream" of economic success. He called these aspirations

institutionalized goals.
institutionalized means.
cultural strain.
cultural means.
cultural goals.

cultural goals

Henry's family was unable to pay their bills last month. He wanted the best for his family, but had a low-paying job. To "earn" some extra cash, be began selling fraudulent tickets at the Civic Center. According to Merton, Henry is a/n

conformist.
innovator.
ritualist.
retreatist.
rebel.

innovator

Harold started using drugs when he was 17. By the time Harold turned 20 he was living on the streets. According to Merton, Henry is a/n

conformist.
innovator.
ritualist.
retreatist.
rebel.

retreatist

_____ ask why some deviant acts are defined as criminal while others are not.

Functionalists
Conflict theorists
Feminist theorists
Symbolic interactionists
Strain theorists

conflict theorists

Conflict theorists often focus on which type of crime?

violent crime
property crime
white collar crime
organized crime
victimless crime

white collar crime

Mr. Davis, an accounting executive at Alpha Inc., participated in tax fraud for several years, which saved the company millions of dollars in taxes. Mr. Davis is guilty of

cybercrime.
occupational crime.
corporate crime.
organized crime.
industrial crime.

corporate crime

The symbolic interaction perspective suggests that people _____ deviant behavior.

are born with
develop
study
learn
recognize

learn

The basic idea behind differential association theory is that

one's environment has little
influence on deviance and crime.

most deviant and criminal behavior is spontaneous.

labeling is a major factor in explaining deviance.

primary deviance leads to secondary deviance.

most people learn deviant behavior through interaction.

most people learn deviant behavior through interaction.

"Society's reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining someone as deviant." This statement best exemplifies which theory of deviance?

differential association
labeling
strain
crime control
feminist theory

labeling

_____ deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law and can range from relatively minor offenses to serious offenses.

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Street
Corporate

primary

The criminal justice system relies on three major approaches to crime control. Which of the following is not one of these approaches?

avoidance
prevention
intervention
punishment
rehabilitation

avoidance

____ is the global leader in the number of inmates per capita.

Mexico
Iraq
Ireland
Japan
The United States

The United States

In the article "Code of the Street" by Elijah Anderson, he argues that interpersonal violence and aggression is part of the code of the street in inner cities poor neighborhood.

true
false
violence was not the topic.
code is about language.

true

The conclusion in the article "The Impact of Internet Communications on Social Interaction" is that

there is no difference between face-to-face interaction and internet interaction.

Goffman's rules on interaction apply to internet interaction.

face-to-face interaction is different from internet interaction.

None of the above is true.

face-to-face interaction is different from internet interaction.

The main topic in "Clique Dynamics" by Patricia Adler and Peter Adler is the study of _______.

primary groups
secondary groups
reference groups
in-groups and out-groups

in-groups and out-groups

The article "The Social Organization of Toy Stores" by Christine Williams discussed about

race problem in the toy store.
gender problem in the toy store.
neither a or b is correct.
both a and b are correct.

race problem in the toy store.
gender problem in the toy store.

The main argument in article "The Medicalizaiton of Deviance" is that we redefine certain deviant behaviors as "illness" rather than as "badness", so that they are treated medically rather than punishment.

true
false

true

The main theoretical perspective used in article "The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison" by Jeffrey Reiman is

functionalist perspective.
conflict perspective.
symbolic interactional perspective.
feminist perspective.

conflict theorists

The hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources is referred to as

social networking.
the division of society.
dependency.
social stratification.
inequality.

social stratification

In a/n _____ stratification system, a person's ability to change social positions is limited and often based on gender or race.

rigid
open
closed
caste
slavery

closed

In open stratification systems, social classes are based on _____ statuses.

ascribed
achieved
hereditary
religious
official

achieved

In the U.S., the top one percent of U.S. households has _____ of all wealth and _____ of all income.

10%; 20%
17%; 34%
29%; 59%
43%; 35%
52%; 34%

43%; 35%

While the U.S. economy has expanded since the late 1960s, income inequality has

increased.
decreased.
fluctuated.
stayed the same.
none of the above

increased

Identify which social class the following description illustrates: Some individuals in this social class flaunt their money and spend it on lavish goods and services to enhance their prestige.

upper-upper class
lower-upper class
upper-middle class
lower-middle class
working class

lower-upper class

Compared to thirty-five years ago, the number of people living in poverty has

increased.

decreased.

stayed the same.

fluctuated.

None of the above - poverty statistics were not collected thirty-five years ago.

increased

The Johnson family cannot afford to buy food for their children. The Johnson family is living in

absolute poverty.
relative poverty.
subjective poverty.
objective poverty.
squalor.

absolute poverty

The _____ view contends that the poor are "deficient" --that they share some problems, values, attitudes, and beliefs about life which are different from those who are not poor.

world-systems
culture of poverty
feminization of poverty
modernization
dependency

culture of poverty

_____ is a person's movement up or down the class hierarchy.

Social stratification
Social mobility
Social movement
Social change
Social hierarchy

social mobility

Stratification is both necessary and inevitable. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?

conflict
functionalist
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange theory

functionalist

Stratification is dysfunctional because it harms society and individuals. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?

conflict
functionalist
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange theory

conflict

Karl Marx argued that capitalism benefits the rich and that society would ultimately be reduced to just two classes: _____ and _____.

middle; lower
lower; upper
bourgeoisie; lower
bourgeoisie; proletariat
proletariat; capitalist

bourgeoise; proletariat

According to _____, low-income societies are poor because of "traditional" attitudes about technology and institutions.

modernization theory
attitudinal theory
dependency theory
traditional theory
world-systems theory

modernization theory

High-income countries have greater access to _____ than low-income countries.

education
safe water
income
health services
all of the above

education
safe water
income
health services

Biological characteristics (anatomy, hormones, etc) determine one's

sex.
gender.
gender roles.
sex roles.
sexual identity.

sex

_____ refers to learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize women and men.

Sex
Gender
Gender identity
Sex roles
Sexual identity

gender

_____ is/are an attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.

Sex identities
Gender roles
Sex stereotypes
Sexism
Racism

sexism

If American women were free to choose, _____ would prefer to be employed rather than stay home to take care of their house and family.

10 percent
20 percent
30 percent
50 percent
80 percent

50 percent

On average, women earn approximately _____ for every dollar men earn.

$1.04
$0.98
$0.77
$0.66
$0.50

$0.77

Women's jobs tend to be "feminine" and require

care-giving.
serving others.
working with people.
none of the above.
all of the above.

care-giving.
serving others.
working with people.

Which of the following is commonly used to explain the gender pay gap?

women choose fields with lower earnings
the glass ceiling
women are more likely to work part-time
all of the above
none of the above

women choose fields with lower earnings
the glass ceiling
women are more likely to work part-time

_____ is any unwanted sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with his or her work.

Sexual misconduct
Sexual harassment
Sexism
Feminism
Pregnancy discrimination

sexual harassment

_____ refers to a preference for sexual partners of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or of either sex.

Sexual discrimination
Sexual orientation
Sexuality
Gender role
Gender identity

sexual orientation

A division of gender roles helps society function smoothly. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange

functionalist

Gender inequality is built into the social structure, in and out of the home. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange

conflict

Sexuality is linked to gender inequality and the control of women's sexual behavior by men. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange

feminist

Social constructionist theories contend that sexual behavior is largely the result of

social pressure and culture.

sexual orientation has a strong genetic basis.

sexual identity is based on cultural factors.

sexual orientation is based on social structure.

none of the above

sexual behavior is largely the result of social pressure and culture.

Gender discrimination often goes unnoticed because

beliefs about male superiority are internalized.

laws prohibit such discrimination.

there are more males than females.

gender discrimination is poorly defined.
it is uncommon.

beliefs about male superiority are internalized.

_____ refers to our awareness of ourselves as male or female and the ways we express our sexual values, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs.

gender identity
sexual identity
gender roles
sexual roles
sexual orientation

sexual identity

This chapter opens with a brief description of a study in which the researchers submitted 5,000 fake résumés to potential employers. The résumés with names that sounded white received _____ callbacks for interviews than those with names that sounded African American.

10 percent more
25 percent more
50 percent more
25 percent fewer
10 percent fewer

50 percent more

About _____ of the human body's 35,000 genes determine the color of a person's skin. 6
16
26
36
No one knows for sure.

6

A/n _____ is any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power.

popular group
apartheid group
dominant group
majority group
principle group

dominant group

For social scientists, race is a(n)

social construct.
personality trait.
temporary characteristic.
variable trait.
myth.

social construct

_____ refers to a group of people who share physical characteristics that are passed on through reproduction.

Gender
Ethnicity
Racism
Race
Racial-ethnic group

race

Language, geographic roots, traditions, and religion are all components of

assimilation.
colonialism.
ethnicity.
race.
apartheid.

ethnicity

_____ refers to the advantages that people enjoy because of their race.

"White power"
"White privilege"
"White advantage"
"Racial privilege"
"Racial opportunity"

"white privilege"

A/n _____ is a group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics.

minority group
majority group
dominant group
subordinate group
principal group

minority group

Systematic attempts to destroy members of particular minority groups is called

genocide.
internal colonialism.
segregation.
assimilation.
pluralism.

genocide

_____ segregation, or legal segregation, has been declared unconstitutional, but _____ segregation has replaced this form of segregation in the United States.

De facto; de jure
De jure; de facto
De jure; de inform
De facto; de legal
none of the above

De jure; de facto

_____ is/are a set of beliefs which claim that one's own racial group is "naturally" superior to other groups.

Stereotypes
Racism
Prejudice
Discrimination
Pluralism

racism

_____ is a positive or negative attitude toward people because of their group membership.

Stereotyping
Racism
Prejudice
Discrimination
Pluralism

prejudice

_____ is an action that treats people unequally or unfairly because of their group membership.

Prejudice
Scapegoating
Cultural relativism
Ethnocentrism
Discrimination

discrimination

While on vacation, Jose went to a local restaurant for lunch. Before he sat down, the owner came out from behind the counter and told Jose to leave the restaurant because his "kind aren't welcome." This is an example of

prejudice.
individual discrimination.
institutional discrimination.
gendered racism.
holistic discrimination.

individual discrimination

Natalie is a prejudiced person who actively discriminates against other groups. According to Merton, Natalie is a/n

"active bigot."
"timid bigot."
"fair-weather liberal."
"all-weather liberal."
"passive bigot."

"active bigot"

Racial hierarchies are supported and perpetuated through economic inequality. This statement represents the views of

functionalists.
conflict theorists.
symbolic interactionists.
feminist theorists.
exchange theorists.

conflict theorists

Prejudice and discrimination are learned, and can therefore be unlearned. This statement best illustrates which of the following theoretical perspectives?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
social exchange

symbolic interactionist

_____ are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States.

Chinese
American Indians
Latinos
Cubans
Arabs

latinos

Of the following statements about African Americans, which one is true?

When compared with whites, their gap in educational achievement has increased in the last four decades.

They are the least diverse minority group in the United States.

They are the only group to have been brought to the United States involuntarily.

Most are foreign-born.

They live almost exclusively in urban areas.

They are the only group to have been brought to the United States involuntarily.

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