social psych final

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Social psychology is the scientific study of

how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Contemporary social psychology emphasizes the

power of the situation, power of the person,
and applicability of social psychological principles

Social psychology is to _____________ as sociology is to ________________.

individuals; groups

Evolutionary psychologists argue that the forces of natural selection predispose us

to particular actions and reactions when dating and mating.

Social neuroscientists seek to understand

the neurobiology that underlies social behavior.

Personality psychologists are more interested in _______________, while social psychologists more likely focus on _____________________.

individual differences; our common humanity

Values can subtly influence science by guiding

A. scientists' assumptions and preconceptions.
B. the labels scientists use for their concepts.
C. scientists' thoughts about what ought to be.

Common assumptions often go unchallenged among a group of scholars who share the same

. culture.

Which of the following psychological terms reflects a disguised value judgment?

well-adjusted
B. mentally ill
C. self-actualized

"The way things are is the way they ought to be." This statement reflects the

naturalistic fallacy.

Two contradictory criticisms faced by social psychology are that its findings are obvious and that

its findings could be used to manipulate people.

Amy reads a research article and feels like it didn't tell her anything she didn't already know. However, when asked to guess the results of another experiment before reading it, she cannot. Amy's experience illustrates the

hindsight bias.

When researcher Karl Teigen gave students the actual proverb "fear is stronger than love," most rated it as true. When he gave others the reverse form, "love is stronger than fear,"

most rated it as true.

An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events is called

a theory.

A research hypothesis is a

testable prediction.

When theories are discarded, it is usually because they

have been displaced by newer, better theories.

A researcher is interested in learning whether young people whose fathers are absent from the home are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior. She compares the arrest rates of boys whose fathers are absent with those of boys whose fathers are present in the home. This is an example of

correlational study.

The great strength of correlational survey research is that is

studies factors in real-world settings that cannot be manipulated in the laboratory.

The great disadvantage of correlational research is that

it does not specify cause and effect.

In conducting your research, you make sure that every person in the population has an equal chance of participating in your survey. This procedure is known as

random sampling.

In 1936, the news magazine, Literary Digest, collected the opinions of over two million Americans regarding the presidential election. The results suggested that Alf Landon would win in a landslide over Franklin D. Roosevelt. Weeks later, FDR won in a landslide. This survey was plagued by

sampling bias.

Opinion polls and surveys

describe public opinion at the moment they are taken.

The answers respondents give to surveys may be influenced by biases from which of the following sources?

A. the order in which questions are asked.
B. the wording of the questions themselves.
C. the response options.

Which research method have social psychologists used in about three-fourths of their studies?

experimental.

An experimenter exposes participants to different temperature levels to determine its effect on aggression. Temperature is the

independent variable.

In a psychological experiment, the factor being measured is called the __________ variable.

dependent.

Manipulating one or two factors while holding others constant is the essence of

experimental control.

When the laboratory experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations, the experiment is said to be high in

mundane realism.

When the laboratory experiment deeply absorbs and involves participants, the experiment has

experimental realism.

American Psychological Association ethical principles dictate that potential research participants should be told enough about the experiment to

be able to give their informed consent.

In comparison to the sociologist, the social psychologist

is more likely to study individuals than groups.

To determine whether changing one variable (like education) will produce changes in another (like income), we need to conduct __________________ research.

experimental.

According to the text, ___________________ tends to make people overconfident about the validity of their judgments and predictions.

the hindsight bias.

A research psychologist manipulates the level of fear in human participants in the laboratory and then examines what effect the different levels of fear have on the participants' reaction times. In this study, reaction time is the __________variable.

dependent.

Illustrate the power of the situation using an example from your own life (e.g., describe a time when others failed to recognize you because the situation was different from usual, or describe a time when a given situation influenced you to act contrary to your beliefs).

One time I had a history class where I was the only girl and so when discussing women's suffrage I feel like my comments were maybe toned down on the feminism because I had no one else in the class who understood the role of women and at times our apparent inferiority in society.

What are demand characteristics and how might they threaten the validity of laboratory research findings?

Demand characteristics are things that participants in experiment observe that they think are clues as to how they are supposed to act and what the purpose of the experiment is. This threatens the validity of the experiment because it changes how the participants might act in according to what they think the experimenter expects of them. This creates inaccurate results.

Debate the pros and cons of deception in social psychological experimentation.

Pros: -more accurate results -more control over the experiment -can help create more valid and reliable results Cons: -possible psychological harm to the participant because of the false information they are possibly fed during the experiment -can create demand characteristics

Japanese are more likely than Americans to complete the sentence "I am . . ." with their

group identities.

Books and movies that celebrate those who do their social duty, even if it means personal sacrifice, are more likely to be found in

collectivist cultures.

People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are likely to be more

persistent and less anxious.

"Sometimes I feel that I can't do anything about the direction my life is taking." This statement reflects

an external locus of control.

Hospital patients trained to believe in their ability to control stress tend to

require fewer pain relievers and sedatives.

Prisoners given some control over their environments—being able to move chairs, control TV sets, and switch the lights—

commit less vandalism.

Jenny failed her last chemistry test. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jenny's part?

"I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing."

The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and undesirable behaviors is known as the

false consensus effect.

What is the "curse of knowledge?"

. the fact that once you know something, it is hard to imagine what it's like not to know

People are most likely to resort to self-handicapping when

they fear failure.

People who score high on a scale of _____________ tend to act like social chameleons: they adjust their behavior in response to external situations.

self-monitoring

The theory of how people explain others' behavior is known as _________theory.

attribution

We are less likely to commit the fundamental attribution error when explaining _______________ behavior.

our own

The fundamental attribution error is reduced when

the actor and observer switch perspectives with each other.

Another term for the fundamental attribution error that many social psychologists prefer is

correspondence bias.

Following presidential debates, individuals typically

become even more supportive of their candidate than before the debate.

One remedy for the belief perseverance phenomenon is to

explain why an opposite belief might be true.

While waiting to cross the street you witness a man running a red light—causing a three-car accident. Just after it happens, the man who ran the stoplight gets out of the car to talk to you. He tells you that the light was yellow. Later you tell police that you remembered the light being yellow, not red, when the man went through the intersection. This scenario illustrates

the misinformation effect.

One reason people are overconfident is that they are not inclined to seek out information

that might disprove what they believe.

The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to play chess and read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver most clearly illustrates the use of

the representativeness heuristic.

The incorrect belief that the letter "k" appears more often as the first letter of a word than as the third letter can be understood in terms of

the availability heuristic.

When baseball's rookie-of-the-year has a more ordinary second year we shouldn't be surprised. This fact is easily explained by

regression toward the average.

Research has indicated that __________________ can be self-fulfilling.

teachers' expectations of students
B. students' expectations of teachers
C. experimenters' expectations of participants

Our attitudes predict our actions when

other influences on our actions are minimized.
B. the attitude involved is specifically about the action.
C. we are conscious of our attitudes as we act.

Which of the following refers to a set of examples or research investigations that illustrate the power of self-persuasion—of attitudes following behavior?

role playing
B. the foot-in-the-door principle
C. interracial desegregation

The results of Zimbardo's Stanford prison simulation indicated that

playing the roles of prisoners and guards can harden and embitter ordinary people.

According to the foot-in-the-door technique, if you get someone to agree to a small request, he or she will.

later comply with a larger request.

You agree to buy a new computer at a terrific price. Then the sales associate charges you for software you thought was included in the original package. You've been

low-balled.

Which of the following is cited in the text as an example of how changing behavior can alter attitudes?

civil rights legislation.

Historians suggest that, in Nazi Germany, citizens who were reluctant to support the Nazi regime experienced a profound inconsistency between their private beliefs and

reciting the public greeting "Heil Hitler" as a conformist greeting.

Impression management is to ____________ as cognitive dissonance is to ___________ .

self-presentation; self-justification

The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is greatest when

there is insufficient justification for the behavior.

Milford has always strongly believed that it is wrong to cheat. But after he himself cheats on a chemistry quiz, his attitude toward cheating becomes significantly less harsh. What best accounts for this attitude shift?

cognitive dissonance theory

William James, self-perception theory, and research findings all suggest that

A. your gait can influence how you feel.
B. your posture can influence how you feel.
C. your facial expressions can influence how you feel.

Give an example of a time when you (or someone you know) engaged in self-handicapping.

Before finals last year me and my friend were so stressed out for a final in a really hard class. We put off studying all of the time to watch the NBA playoffs. We even recorded the games that were overlapping and watch them after so that we could have yet another reason to procrastinate. And when we did poorly on our final in a class we just blamed it on the playoffs and watching the games because we already didn't think we were gonna do well.

Discuss cognitive bias in news-making. How might journalists overcome such biases?

Because we all certainly have cognitive biases journalists have the power to use that knowledge in manipulating the story so we attribute events to people and their wrong doings rather than the situational factors. Especially because we all know good news is no news and the negative stories that make the news are very likely to trigger us into thinking with a cognitive bias compared to a positive story. Honest journalists also struggle with it though because it is so natural for us to have a cognitive bias when we read hear about these negative stories. Journalists can overcome such biases like giving insight as to what is common. As an example, if there was a scandal with the President they would want to go into detail as to what is typical of him to do on an everyday basis, or to explain how he acted in similar instances in the past. This gives the observers of the news event more opportunity to see the Presidents behavior in multiple contexts. Then the audience should have enough information to decide whether the scandal can be attributed to the Presidents personality or to situational factors.

Describe an attitude that is important to you. Discuss examples of affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of your attitude.

I feel strongly about recycling. I think that it takes little effort but makes a big difference in our world. My affective component of my attitude is that it I am pro-recycling. The behavioral component of my attitude is I personally always recycle, I make sure all of my friends and family recycle, and I'm on the Green Team to help promote recycling in Boulder. The cognitive component of my attitude is that I know about how much waste we go through because I was in environmental biology and how its damaging our world; however, there is a great amount of value in recycling and it is extremely beneficial.

Evolutionary psychology

involves studying how natural selection predisposes traits and social behaviors.

Which of the following is shaped by where and when we live?

A. how we define beauty
B. how we define social justice
C. whether we tend to be expressive or reserved

"American drivers are expected to keep to the right on a two-lane road" would be an example of what the text calls a

norm.

The incest taboo is

a universal norm.

The characteristics people associate with male and female define

gender.

In general, women more than men give priority to

close relationships.

Men are more likely than women to gravitate toward jobs that

enhance inequalities.

Women are more likely than men to

A. make a charitable bequest from estate money.
B. buy greeting cards.
C. describe themselves as empathetic

A noticeable difference has not been found between males and females in

happiness.

In every known society, men, relative to women

are socially dominant.

In group situations, men are more likely than women to

A. interrupt others.
B. smile less.
C. stare more.

Across cultures, men

A. prefer younger mates.
B. prefer women with physical features that suggest fertility.
C. are more likely to initiate sexual activity.

Higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in

A. violent male criminals.
B. boisterous fraternity members.
C. National Football League players.

As people mature to middle age and beyond,

gender differences in interpersonal behavior decrease.

The term "gender role" refers to

a set of behavioral expectations for males or females.

Compared to boys, girls in countries everywhere spend more time ___________ and less time _______________

helping with housework; in unsupervised play

A study of American gender roles indicates that

since 1970, increasing numbers of women have entered graduate school, medical school, and law school.

Twin and adoption studies indicate that genetic influences explain approximately _________ of individual variations in personality traits.

50%

Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing is called

compliance.

Kenny is scolded by his mother and told to stand in the corner quietly for three minutes. While standing in the corner he mutters, "I may be standing, but inwardly I'm sitting." Kenny has been ____________ , but displays no sign of __________.

obedient; acceptance

As a freshman, Tim became a vegetarian in order to fit in with his new friends. Now, as a senior, Tim would never eat meat again. What process does Tim's experience illustrate?

acceptance

At one time, aircraft had constant rather than blinking lights on the wingtips. When pilots in formation tried to follow the constant lights of the aircraft in front of them, they veered off course. This is perhaps best explained by

the autokinetic phenomenon.

Sherif's study of the autokinetic phenomenon best illustrates

informational influence.

Chartrand and Bargh (1999) found that participants in an experiment who worked alongside another person who occasionally rubbed her face were unwittingly more likely to rub their face. They called this

the chameleon effect.

Being around happy people can make us happy. This phenomenon is called

mood linkage.

When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that over 60 percent of them

went all the way up to 450 volts.

A psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of Milgram's participants a year after their participation concluded that

none had been harmed.

Which of the following was found to be a factor that influenced obedience in Milgram's research

A. the victim's emotional distance
B. the closeness of the authority
C. the presence of other defiant subjects

When Milgram's experimental series was reenacted in Bridgeport, Connecticut, far from the prestige and authority of Yale University, the proportion of participants who fully complied with orders to shock the learner ________________ compared to the Yale rate.

decreased to 48 percent

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not particularly hostile, can become agents of destruction.

According to conformity research, a group's social power is deflated when it loses its

unanimity.

In calling sports decisions, umpires and referees rarely change their decisions as a result of a player's objection. This may be an example of how

public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.

After hearing a respected medical authority lecture about the value of eating fresh fruits and vegetables, Joshua includes more of them in his diet. This change in Joshua's eating patterns is an example of

informational social influence.

Peter hates to wear ties anywhere. Nevertheless he wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid the disapproval of his family. This is an example of

normative social influence.

When William McGuire and his Yale University colleagues invited children to "tell us about yourself," they found that the children were most likely to mention their

distinctive attributes.

In your opinion, what are the most important gender differences described in the textbook? Why?

There are a few very important gender differences described in our textbook: aggression, empathy, social dominance, and sexuality. I think it is pretty clear to all of us that men are much more aggressive than women, generally speaking. And in terms of a psychologists definition, this means that men behave with intentions of hurting someone. I feel like this trait goes hand in hand with that of women being more empathetic. This difference of men being more aggressive and women more empathetic truly shows how the genders can be polar opposite. Women seem to rarely get into fights with each other, but men rarely seem to even attempt to understand what other people are going through. I feel like men may even sometimes be aggressive because they lack that ability to empathize, but then again I'm bias because I'm a woman. Social dominance is another important gender difference because it is such a universal gender difference. When I think of political leaders all over the world most of them are men; when I think of heroes in stories from all cultures most of them are men. I think it may even be their aggression that helps them get to this dominating role that their gender seems to support. Sexuality is an important gender difference in my opinion because its almost the most obvious one, or maybe its just because I'm at that age in college. But boys seem to seek out women more, again, aggressively. They are definitely the initiators for the most part, but I feel like it may even have become a social norm for them the be the initiators, women expect it.

Discuss the ethics of Milgram's obedience experiments.

I understand that Milgram's obedience experiments may seem unethical because at the time the subjects thought that they were causing harm, to an extreme point, to other humans. But if they felt they were causing so much damage and it was terrorizing them internally, they should've refused to still give them the shock. I think that he debriefed them well enough on the experiment to the point where maybe it was more relieving than angering to hear that no one was actually harmed in the experiment. If anything I think the fact that people felt that it was unethical because they were uncomfortable with what the experiment revealed. Maybe the idea that they had it in them to do something that potentially could have been extremely harmful scared them, rather than that they were tricked. Either way they associated that bad feeling with the experiment and therefore explained it as unethical. Milgram's obedience experiments revealed some harsh realities, however I think that with proper debriefing it is ethical. His experiments were brilliant, and that's why they are a legacy

How are both the power of the situation and the power of the person evident in the results of Asch's conformity research?

The situation takes power and is evident in the results of Asch's conformity research in that being surrounded by all of these people who disagree with you leaves you feeling uncomfortable. The situation creates you as a minority, although there is no one pressuring you to conform. However, "there were no rewards for "team play" and no punishments for individuality". This means that the ultimate decision was left up to the subject and the power of the person. This situation ultimately should be only based upon the power of the person if it were played out in real life, however the situation takes power in making the subject question whether they should trust themselves or the majority.

The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors is called

persuasion.

According to the text, which of the following is one of the hurdles a persuasive message must clear in order to change attitudes and behavioral intentions?

A. Is the message comprehended?
B. Is the message believed?
C. Is the message remembered?

An automobile manufacturer who produces advertisements associating his cars with a young, attractive family enjoying picnics is most clearly using

peripheral route persuasion.

A computer manufacturer who produces advertisements comparing his product with other competing models on features and prices is most clearly using

central route persuasion.

Attitude change that has followed the central route is more likely to

A. persist.
B. resist attack.
C. influence behavior.

Over time the impact of a message from a noncredible source may __________, a phenomenon known as the

increase; sleeper effect.

You will be perceived as more credible if you

A. speak quickly.
B. argue against your own self-interest.
C. speak confidently, without hesitation.

Physical appeal and similarity are two important factors that determine a communicator's

attractiveness.

_________________ audiences are more persuaded by _________________.

A. Well-educated; rational appeals
B. Uninvolved; how much they like the communicator
C. Highly involved; reasoned arguments

Fear-arousing messages have proven potent in convincing people to

A. cut down on smoking.
B. brush their teeth more often.
C. drive carefully.

According to the text, health warnings on cigarette ads are ineffective because they

lack vividness.

You have been asked to prepare a speech opposing capital punishment. To be most effective in convincing those who strongly favor the death penalty, you should present

a two-sided communication.

You are one of two candidates being interviewed for a position as superintendent of the city school system. You are notified that one candidate will be interviewed tomorrow evening and the other a week later. The school board will make a decision immediately after the second candidate has been interviewed. If you want the job

you should try to be interviewed last.

For minor issues, the impact of a persuasive appeal is likely to increase with

repetition.

Persuasion studies demonstrate that the major influence on important beliefs and attitudes appears to be

our contact with people.

Which of the following is true regarding age differences in attitudes?

Attitudes formed in the teens and 20s tend to be stable thereafter.

Keela wants to persuade her parents to help pay for a study trip abroad this summer. She will have a more difficult time succeeding if

her parents are forewarned of her intent to convince them.

The text indicates that inoculation procedures have been successful in

reducing teenage smoking rates.

The social-facilitation effect has been found to apply to

A. people performing simple motor tasks.
B. chickens eating grain.
C. ants excavating sand.

The primary effect of a crowd is that is

enhances arousal.

Research on social facilitation suggests that the design of new office buildings in which private offices are replaced with large, open areas may

disrupt creative thinking on complex tasks.

Experiments show that people in groups loaf less when

the task is challenging.

Which of the following is likely to occur under conditions of deindividuation?

A. police brutality
B. screaming at a referee during a NCAA tournament game
C. stealing

People are more likely to bait a person to jump off a bridge when it is dark and

the crowd is large.

Zimbardo reported that women who were masked and hooded in KKK-style hoods and robes tended to ___________________ than women who were visible and wore name tags.

administer longer shocks to a victim

Group polarization occurs when group discussion _________ group members' initial inclinations.

strengthens

Which of the following is an example of group polarization in one's community?

gang delinquency

Failing to ask questions in class because you assume everyone else understands best exemplifies

pluralistic ignorance.

According to the text, groupthink symptoms can be viewed as

a collective form of dissonance reduction.

"Mindguards" protect group leaders from

disagreeable facts.

Minority influence is most likely to have an impact through

central route persuasion.

The process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group defines

leadership.

Research on leadership indicates that

effective supervisors tend to score high on both task and social leadership.

Describe a television commercial and analyze the elements of persuasion that it uses. Does it promote and/or assume central or peripheral route processing?

I just saw an Old Spice commercial and it definitely promotes its products using peripheral route processing. A phrase that is often repeated throughout the commercial is, "the man your man could smell like" being spoken by an attractive man with no shirt on and great abs. Its interesting because its not even directing the message to the consumer, but rather to women who date the consumer. This seems to convey the message that women want men who wear and use Old Spice. They use no rationale behind it which makes it clear that the advertisers for that company are using the peripheral route to persuasion.

Explain the principles and techniques you would use to become a cult leader.

If I were to become a cult leader I would make sure that my followers would commit to my cult "voluntarily, publicly, and repeatedly". I would have rituals performed often as well as having my new members become active right away in things such as "public canvassing and fundraising" to promote our cult. I would also ease my members into joining by taking advantage of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. This slow surrender to the cult would have them voluntarily locked into the cult according to the research in the text. I also would have to be a very charismatic leader while being credible at the same time, I would want my new members to trust me so that I can get them more and more involved. I also need my message to be "vivid" and "emotional" to try to appeal to people who may be lost or lonely in life and are looking to associate with a group to help them. Or looking for followers in different places, like people who may be at a turning point in their life and are vulnerable to suggestions for change. I also will project my messages to a younger crowd because they have been found to be more likely to join because their attitudes and beliefs aren't entirely stable yet. Once I have the members joined I will attempt to isolate them from any other social support systems and have them relying and believing entirely on my cult.

Self-awareness is the opposite of deindividuation. Explain.

Self-awareness is the opposite of deindividuation in that when we are self-aware we are consciously thinking of our actions and how we could be reprimanded if something goes wrong. When we are self-aware we are only thinking about how our actions will effect us. But when deindividuation occurs we aren't as aware of our actions because we are acting as a representative of a group. If there were to be consequences to those actions we wouldn't be so worried about them because it reflect upon the group poorly and not just us as individuals. We lose our identity a bit in deindividuation, and that is what makes us less aware. When we are practicing self-awareness we are making individual, independent choices. When we are in a situation of deindividuation we are making collective choices.

Which of the following clearly meets the definition of a stereotype?

Gretchen believes the British are reserved and unexcitable.

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