Study guide for Chapters 28 and 29

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112 terms · Study guide for Chapters 28 and 29 in Dr Delfert's class

increases testosterone production by the Leydig cells.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) binds to Leydig cells and

inhibits Serotoli cells.
promotes sperm cell production by the Leydig cells.
increases testosterone production by the Leydig cells.
stimulates GnRH levels to increase in the testes.

menses, proliferative, secretory.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous phases. Starting from the first day of the cycle, their consecutive order is

menses, proliferative, secretory.
menses, secretory, proliferative.
secretory, menses, proliferative.
proliferative, menses, secretory.

all of the above

Which of the following statements concerning the female mammary glands is true?

They are modified sweat glands.
They are the organs of milk production.
They may contain large amounts of adipose tissue.
They are attached to the pectoralis major muscle by Cooper's ligaments.
all of the above

graafian or mature

A follicle containing a secondary oocyte and a single fluid-filled antrum is called a _____ follicle.

primary
graafian or mature
secondary
primordial

manual stimulation of the penis.

Erection and ejaculation can be initiated by

manual stimulation of the penis.
contraction of smooth muscle.
impulses from the cerebellum.
increassed blood levels of testosterone

28; 14

The average menstrual cycle is about ____ days long; ovulation occurs on about day ____.

30; 24
28; 14
24; 14
20; 10

remains in the abdominopelvic cavity.

Male infants can be born with an undescended testis. This means that the testis

lacks hormonal cells.
covers the top of the scrotum.
has lost its blood supply.
remains in the abdominopelvic cavity.

granulosa cells.

The androgens produced by the theca interna cells are converted to estrogen by

corpus luteal cells.
FSH.
granulosa cells.
GnRH.

perineum

Frequently during childbirth, an episiotomy is performed. In this procedure the _____ is cut.

vagina
perineum
labia majora
labia minora

fertilized oocyte

"Zygote" is the term used to describe the

graafian oocyte.
primary oocyte.
secondary oocyte.
fertilized oocyte

estrogen and progesterone.

The placenta produces both

estrogen and progesterone.
progesterone and prolactin.
prolactin and FSH.
androgens and estrogens.

time from the onset of irregular menstrual cycles to cessation of those cycles.

The female climacteric refers to the

cessation of menstruation.
time from the onset of irregular menstrual cycles to cessation of those cycles.
decrease in the sexual drive.
inability to have sexual intercourse.

tunica albuginea.

The ovary is surrounded by a layer of fibrous connective tissue called the

mesovarium.
tunica albuginea.
peritoneum.
medulla.

ejaculation

The forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra caused by contraction of smooth muscle in the urethra and skeletal muscle surrounding the base of the penis is called

ejaculation.
neutralization.
physiological contracture.
emission.

secrete testosterone.

The interstitial cells or Leydig cells

produce sperm.
form the wall of the rete testis.
cover the testis with a while tunic.
secrete testosterone

keep the corpus luteum from degenerating

The hormone HCG is necessary to

form the corpus luteum.
cause the endometrium to proliferate.
stimulate primary oocytes to divide.
keep the corpus luteum from degenerating.

seminiferous tubules; epididymis

Sperm are produced in the _____ and complete maturation in the _____.

epididymis; testes
ductus deferens; epididymis
seminiferous tubules; prostate gland
seminiferous tubules; epididymis

The inferior portion is the cervix.

Which of the following statements concerning the uterus is true?

The inferior portion is the cervix.
The isthmus separates the body and the fundus.
The fundus forms the major portion of this organ.
The uterine wall is composed of four layers.

when a sperm cell penetrates a secondary oocyte.

Fertilization can only occur

if orgasms occur in both the male and female.
when a sperm cell penetrates a secondary oocyte.
when there is no menstrual flow.
after oxytocin is released from the hypothalamus.

testosterone

Which of the following hormones would decrease if an adult male were castrated (testes removed)?

GnRH
FSH
LH
testosterone

mons pubis--vaginal orifice

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

clitoris--erectile tissue
labia minora--unite anteriorly to form the prepuce
vestibular glands--maintain moistness of vestribule
mons pubis--vaginal orifice

tunica albuginea.

The thick white capsule that covers each testes is called the

raphe.
tunica adventitia.
tunica albuginea.
Leydig capsule.

sperm plus the secretions of accessory glands

Semen is

produced solely by the testis.
a vaginal secretion needed to activate sperm.
sperm plus the secretions of accessory glands.
responsible for engorgement of erectile tissue of the penis.

estrogen

Hot flashes during the climacteric are thought to be the result of decreased _____ levels.

LH
FSH
estrogen
progesterone

pull the testes closer to the body.

Contraction of the cremaster and dartos muscles

causes the epididymis to shrink.
increases during exercise.
pull the testes closer to the body.
is responsible for ejaculation.

primarily effects granulosa cells.

FSH

stimulates theca interna cells to produce androgens.
primarily effects granulosa cells.
increases progesterone production.
inhibits LH.

secondary spermatocyte

Which of the following cell types is formed at the end of the first meiotic division?

spermatid
spermatogonia
primary spermatocyte
secondary spermatocyte

vas deferens (ductus deferens)

Which of the following structures would be found in the spermatic cord?

epididymis
vas deferens (ductus deferens)
seminal vesicle
ejaculatory duct

GnRH.

The hypothalamic hormone that regulates both male and female reproductive cycles is

FSH.
ICSH.
GnRH.
LH.

prostaglandins--cause urethral contractions

Which of the following substances found in semen is mismatched with its function?

fructose--nourishes sperm
mucus--lubricates urethra
fibrinogen--transient coagulation of semen
prostaglandins--cause urethral contractions

degenerate.

Follicles in the ovary that are never ovulated

degenerate.
become the corpus albicans.
form secondary follicles.
undergo and complete meiosis in the ovary

corpora cavernosa--form the foreskin

Which of the following is mismatched?

prepuce--skin that covers the glans penis
corpora cavernosa--form the foreskin
glans penis--contains external urethral opening
corpus spongiosum--expands to form the glans penis

corpus albicans

Which of the following follicular stages is the last to appear?

corpus albicans
corpus luteum
primary follicle
mature follicle

a theca or capsule is formed around it

As a secondary follicle enlarges,

the granulosa cells are replaced with fluid.
the secondary oocyte divides by mitosis.
a theca or capsule is formed around it.
the zona pellucida becomes thinner.

3, 2, 1

Arrange the following events in the correct sequence.
(1) ejaculation (2) emission (3) erection

1, 2, 3
3, 1, 2
3, 2, 1
1, 3, 2

dihydrotestosterone and estradiol

Which of the following substances found in Sertoli cells may be the active hormones that promote sperm cell formation?

IgA and IgG
sustentaculum and gubernaculum
dihydrotestosterone and estradiol
androgen-binding protein and testosterone

5, 2, 3, 1, 4

Arrange the following structures in the order sperm would pass through them from the seminiferous tubules to the urethra.
(1) ductus deferens (vas deferens) (2) efferent ductules (3) epididymis (4) ejaculatory duct (5) rete testis

5, 2, 3, 1, 4
3, 2, 4, 1, 5
3, 4, 2, 1, 5
5, 2, 4, 3, 1

contractions of skeletal muscle at the base of the penis

Which of the following events in the male sex act occurs last and results in ejaculation?

peristaltic contractions of the ductus deferens
contractions of skeletal muscle at the base of the penis
constriction of the internal sphincter of the urinary bladder
release of secretions from the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland

uterine wall begins to thicken and increased estrogen production by the follicles

Which of the following events in the menstrual cycle occur at the same time?

maximal LH secretion and menstruation (menstrual flow)
early follicular development in the ovaries and maximum thickening of the uterus
ovulation and menstruation (menstrual flow)
uterine wall begins to thicken and increased estrogen production by the follicles

The oocyte is moved along the tube by peristaltic contractions of the muscular layer.

Which of the following statements concerning the uterine tube is true?

The outer layer of the tube is formed by the ampulla.
The oocyte is moved along the tube by peristaltic contractions of the muscular layer.
The opening of the uterine tube is the mesosalpinx.
The portion of the uterine tube closest to the uterus is the infundibulum.

It can lead to an increase in muscle mass

Which of the following statements concerning testosterone is true?

It prevents hair loss in pattern baldness.
It promotes atrophy of the larynx.
It can lead to an increase in muscle mass.
It causes the skin and hair to soften.

72 hours.

Spermatozoa may remain viable in the female reproductive tract for as long as

24 hours.
48 hours.
72 hours.
96 hours

causes cellular hypertrophy in the endometrium.

Progesterone

increases fallopian tube motility.
causes uterine muscle contractions.
causes ovulation.
causes cellular hypertrophy in the endometrium.

400

Of the two million primary oocytes in the ovaries at birth, only about _____ are ovulated.

40
400
4,000
400,000

extends through the length of the penis.

The male urethra

has numerous mucus-secreting glands.
extends through the length of the penis.
is lined with ciliated cuboidal epithelium.
extends from the prostate gland to the ductus deferens

Rising progesterone levels cause the myometrium to contract

Which of the following statements is false?

Estrogen causes endometrial cells to proliferate.
After ovulation, the endometrium becomes thicker.
Rising progesterone levels cause the myometrium to contract.
The uterine cycle makes the endometrium a hospitable environment for implantation

46 chromosomes.

A primary spermatocyte is a diploid cell that gives rise to two secondary spermatocytes after the first meiotic division. The primary spermatocyte has

92 chromosomes.
46 chromosomes.
23 chromosomes.
no chromosomes.

urogenital triangle

Which of the following structures is located within the perineum?

dartos
seminal vesicles
femoral triangle
urogenital triangle

the hypothalamus becoming less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of androgens.

The major factor controlling the onset of puberty in males is

a decrease in GnRH levels.
the production of testosterone by the testes.
the ability of the pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.
the hypothalamus becoming less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of androgens

both a and b are correct

Sexual drive in females

is dependent on hormones.
can be affected by psychological factors.
both a and b are correct
neither a nor b have any influence on sexual drive in females

cervical cancer.

A Pap test is used to detect

pregnancy.
the time of ovulation.
cervical cancer.
a prolapsed uterus.

broad ligaments--help support the uterus

Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

broad ligaments--help support the uterus
cervix--lined with rugae
basal layer - layer of endometrium closest to uterine cavity
perimetrium--muscular coat of uterus

penile erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood.

Erection of the penis occurs when

the pubic bones move together.
the bulbourethral muscles contract.
lymphatic fluid accumulates in the glans penis.
penile erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood.

FSH and LH secretion will occur.

Once GnRH is released from the hypothalamus and enters the hypothalamohypophyseal portal system,

testosterone is released from the anterior pituitary.
the Leydig cells produce inhibin.
estrogen production increases.
FSH and LH secretion will occur.

Scrotum

The _______ is a sac consisting of skin and superficial fascia that hangs from the base of the penis.

Dartos muscle
Cremaster muscles
Scrotum

Dartos

The _______ muscle is located in the superficial fascia of the scrotum and septum.

Dartos
Cremaster

Cremaster

The ________ muscles extend from the internal oblique muscle to the scrotum.

Dartos
Cremaster

tunica vaginalis

The _______ _______ is a two-layered outer serous membrane surrounding each testis.

rete testis
seminiferous tubules
efferent duct
interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

tunica albuginea

The _______ _______ lies inside the tunica vaginalis and protrudes inward, dividing each testis into compartments called lobules.

rete testis
seminiferous tubules
efferent duct
interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

seminiferous tubules

One to four tightly coiled tubes, the _______ ________, lie inside each lobule.

rete testis
seminiferous tubules
efferent duct
interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

rete testis

The _____ ______ is a network of tubes formed by the merging of the tubulus recti from each lobule.

rete testis
seminiferous tubules
efferent duct
interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

efferent ducts

The _______ _______ transport sperm out of the testis (from the rete testis) to the epididymis.

rete testis
seminiferous tubules
efferent duct
interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

Interstitial cells (Leydig cells)

The ________ _______ surrounding the seminiferous tubules secrete testosterone and other androgen hormones.

rete testis
seminiferous tubules
efferent duct
interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

D. urethra

Which of the following functions in both urinary and reproductive systems in the male?
A. prostate
B. Seminal vesicle
C. Sertoli cells
D. urethra

B. aid the sperm in penetration into a secondary oocyte

The function of chemicals within the acrosomal cap is to
A. protect the DNA of the sperm
B. aid the sperm in penetration into a secondary oocyte
C. provide energy for the flagellum
D. provide motility for the sperm

B. corpus spongiosum

The portion of the penis which surrounds the urethra is the
A. tunica albuginea
B. corpus spongiosum
C. corpus cavernosum
D. prepuce

C. seminal vesicles

The fructose in semen is secreted by the
A. epididymis
B. ductus deferens
C. seminal vesicles
D. seminiferous tubules

B. progesterone and estrogens

The corpus luteum secretes
A. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
B. progesterone and estrogens
C. hCG and progesterone
D. estrogens and hCG

C. flagella

Sperm move by means of
A. cilia
B. microvilli
C. flagella
D. enzymes

A. secondary oocyte, primary oocyte

After ovulation the _____ becomes the _____.
A. secondary oocyte, primary oocyte
B. zona pellucida, corona radiata
C. mature (Graafian) follicle, corpus luteum
D. amount of glucose ingested

C. cortex

The portion of the ovary that contains the ovarian follicles is the
A. mesovarium
B. germinal epithelium
C. cortex
D. tunica albuginea

B. uterus

Which female reproductive structure is located between the urinary bladder and the rectum?
A. ovary
B. uterus
C. vagina
D. prostate

B. stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone

In males, FSH
A. acts indirectly with testosterone to stimulate spermatogenesis
B. stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone
C. has no function
D. causes sperm cells to secrete inhibin

D. Leydig cells

The cells in the testis responsible for producing testosterone are the
A. spermatogenic cells
B. spermatogonia
C. Sertoli cells
D. Leydig cells

C. tunica albuginea

The testes are covered by a dense white fibrous capsule called the
A. scrotum
B. tunica vaginalis
C. tunica albuginea
D. visceral peritoneum

A. spermatogonia

Which of the following cells lies next to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules?
A. spermatogonia
B. primary spermatocytes
C. secondary spermatocytes
D. spermatids

B. visceral peritoneum

The perimetrium or serosa is part of the
A. parietal peritoneum
B. visceral peritoneum
C. parietal pleura
D. visceral pericardium

A. mitosis

In the testis, spermatogonia divide by
A. mitosis
B. meiosis
C. reduction division
D. equation division

D. spermatids

The cells formed by meiosis II are called
A. spermatogonia
B. primary spermatocytes
C. secondary spermatocytes
D. spermatids

D. 300 million

The daily production of sperm in the testes is about
A. 30 thousand
B. 300 thousand
C. 30 million
D. 300 million

B. LH

Which of the hormones produced in the male directly stimulates testosterone secretion?
A. FSH
B. LH
C. inhibin
D. GnRH

C. Sertoli cells; FSH

In the male, the protein hormone inhibin is produced by the _____ and inhibits secretion of _____.
A. hypothalamus; LH
B. anterior pituitary gland; testosterone
C. Sertoli cells; FSH
D. Leydig cells; GnRH

A. ductus deferens

The longest duct of the male reproductive tract, passing from the scrotum into the pelvic cavity, is the
A. ductus deferens
B. epididymis
C. ejaculatory duct
D. urethra

B. prostate gland

The ejaculatory duct attaches to the urethra in a region surrounded by the
A. seminal vesicles
B. prostate gland
C. urogenital diaphragm
D. urinary bladder

D. mesonephric duct

The epididymis and ductus (vas) deferens develop from the embryonic
A. genital tubercle
B. labioscrotal swelling
C. paramesonephric duct
D. mesonephric duct

D. twenty million

A male is likely to be infertile if his sperm count is below _____ per mL of semen.
A. one thousand
B. ten thousand
C. one million
D. twenty million

B. corpus spongiosum

The bulb of the penis is located at the base of the
A. corpus cavernosum
B. corpus spongiosum
C. glans penis
D. prepuce

B. four hundred

At birth, hundreds of thousands of oogonia are present in each ovary at birth, but only about _____ of these will mature and ovulate.
A. fifty
B. four hundred
C. four thousand
D. half

A. during fetal development

In the ovary, oocytes begin meiosis I
A. during fetal development
B. during early childhood
C. after puberty
D. after ovulation

C. infundibulum

The open, funnel-shaped portion of a uterine tube is called the
A. fimbria
B. ampulla
C. infundibulum
D. isthmus

D. ampulla of the oviduct

Fertilization of the oocyte by a sperm usually occurs in the
A. vagina
B. cervix of the uterus
C. ovary
D. ampulla of the oviduct

B. broad ligaments

The uterus is attached to both sides of the pelvic cavity by the
A. round ligaments
B. broad ligaments
C. oviducts
D. cardinal ligaments

A. cancer of the cervix

A Pap smear is a test performed to detect
A. cancer of the cervix
B. pregnancy
C. infections of the ovary
D. vaginitis

C. anteflexion

The normal flexure of the uterus, projecting it anteriorly and superiorly over the vagina, is called
A. uterine prolapse
B. dorsiflexion
C. anteflexion
D. retroflexion

D. surgical removal of the uterus

A hysterectomy is the
A. downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina
B. most common sterilization procedure used in women
C. surgical procedure sometime used during childbirth to open the vaginal canal
D. surgical removal of the uterus

B. repeatedly gives rise to a new stratum functionalis after each menstruation

The stratum basalis of the uterus
A. is shed during menstruation
B. repeatedly gives rise to a new stratum functionalis after each menstruation
C. contracts during childbirth to help expel the fetus
D. is part of the visceral peritoneum and becomes part of the broad ligament

A. breakdown of glycogen that produces organic acids

The acidity of the vagina is due to
A. breakdown of glycogen that produces organic acids
B. secretion of small amounts of hydrochloric acid by cells lining the tube
C. reabsorption of bicarbonate ions, reducing their buffering action
D. secretions of bacteria that normally reside in this tube

C. labia minora

The small folds that are lateral to the vaginal opening are the
A. hymen
B. clitoris
C. labia minora
D. mons pubis

A. alveoli

The milk secreting glands in the breast are called
A. alveoli
B. lobules
C. lobes
D. lactiferous sinuses

A. lactiferous ducts

The last tubes through which milk flows before it reaches the outside through the nipple are the
A. lactiferous ducts
B. lactiferous sinuses
C. mammary ducts
D. secondary tubules

D. 35 and 39

he American Cancer Society recommends that a woman should have a baseline mammogram taken, to serve as a comparison, between the ages of
A. 20 and 24
B. 25 and 29
C. 30 and 34
D. 35 and 39

C. estrogens and progesterone

Which of the following hormones have the greatest direct control over the changes in the uterus?
A. GnRH
B. FSH and LH
C. estrogens and progesterone
D. inhibin and relaxin

A. beta-estradiol

The principal estrogen hormone in the nonpregnant woman is
A. beta-estradiol
B. estrone
C. estriol
D. progesterone

A. estrogens

Which hormone has effects on general metabolism to increase protein production and reduce cholesterol production as well as controlling the reproductive cycle in the female?
A. estrogens
B. progesterone
C. FSH
D. LH

C. relaxin

__________ increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis at the end of pregnancy.
A. estrogen
B. progesterone
C. relaxin
D. inhibin

B. preovulatory phase

The mature (Graafian) follicle continues to enlarge and increase its estrogen production during the
A. menstrual phase
B. preovulatory phase
C. ovulation phase
D. postovulatory phase

B. FSH

The hormone responsible for stimulating the development of the secondary follicles in the ovary is
A. progesterone
B. FSH
C. LH
D. GnRH

D. LH

An over-the-counter test is now available for purchase that indicates ovulation. This test measures the levels of
A. estrogens
B. FSH
C. GnRH
D. LH

A. menstruation

Low levels of progesterone cause
A. menstruation
B. inhibition of GnRH
C. a sudden surge of LH
D. inhibition of FSH and LH

D. inhibit the release of FSH and LH

Oral contraceptive pills contain estrogens and progestin that
A. cause the developing follicle to degenerate
B. inhibit the secretion of inhibin
C. prevent the development of the endometrium
D. inhibit the release of FSH and LH

B. sympto-thermal

The birth control method that is based on knowledge of certain physiological changes that occur during the menstrual cycle is
A. coitus interruptus
B. sympto-thermal
C. the intrauterine device
D. the cervical cap

C. the first menses

Menarche is
A. the same as menopause
B. the permanent cessation of menses
C. the first menses
D. when oogenesis begins

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