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Final Exam Review

the secretory phase

A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.

lobules

Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into

seminiferous tubules

Sperm production occurs in the

bulbo-urethral glands.

The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the

meiosis.

The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called

deliver spermatozoa to the epididymis.

Scarring of the rete testis would interfere with a man's ability to

rete testis

Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a maze of passageways called the

secondary spermatocytes

The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by the first meiosis are called

estradiol

The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete

a castrated adult male

In which of the following cases would the level of GnRH be highest?

a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia

The vagina is

areola

The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the

progesterone

Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of

a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis

The spermatic cord is

uterus

The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the

peristaltic contractions

Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by

ejaculation

Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in

23

How many tetrads form during synapsis?

ovulation

The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers

LH

The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is

body

The ________ is the largest portion of the uterus.

infundibulum

Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?

production of spermatozoa

Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except

synapsis; tetrad

During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes fuse together during the process called ________ to form a ________.

meiosis

The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called

enters the inguinal canal

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term round ligament?

urinary bladder

The broad ligament attaches to all of the following organs, except the

thick layer of smooth muscle cells

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myometrium?

primordial follicle

The primary follicle develops from the

cervix

The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the

four; 23

A primary spermatocyte matures into ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes

the menses

The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is

both produce progesterone

Which of the following is not a similarity between the testis and ovary?

prostate gland

The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the

consists of stratum basalis and stratum functionalis

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?

infundibulum

The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the

mimics the symptoms of menopause

Which of the following is not an action of estrogen?

uterine tube

The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the

28 days

The average length of the menstrual cycle is

milk will not be ejected into the lactiferous sinuses.

If oxytocin receptors are blocked,

be sterile

A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will

an extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.

The broad ligament is

epididymis

Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the

female external genitalia

Another term for vulva is

corpora cavernosa

The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the

the old functional layer is sloughed off

During the menses

initiate sperm production in the testes.

The role of FSH in males is to

penis

The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the

23 chromosomes

Secondary spermatocytes each contain

tightens the scrotal sac.

Contraction of the dartos muscle

with a higher than normal pH

If the prostate stopped secreting fluid, this would result in semen

dysmenorrhea

Painful menstruation is called

Both will produce a fixed number of gametes

Which of these is NOT a similarity between the male and female reproductive systems?

ducts that receive and transport the gametes, gonads and external genitalia, and accessory glands and organs that secrete fluids

The reproductive system includes

tenses the scrotal sac and pulls the testes closer to the body cavity

Contraction of the cremaster muscles

are also called Leydig cells, respond to luteinizing hormone, and produce testosterone

Interstitial cells

interstitial cells

Which of these are not found in the seminiferous tubules?
spermatogonia, nurse cells, interstitial cells, primary spermatocytes

secondary spermatocyte

The first haploid cell formed during spermatogenesis is the __________

spermatogonia

Sperm develop from stem cells called

dartos

Which muscle is found beneath the skin of both the penis and the scrotum?

ductus deferens

The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the

LH

Interstitial cells surrounding seminiferous tubules produce testosterone in response to

epididymis

The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the

androgens

Interstitial cells produce

bulbo-urethral glands

The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the

epididymis

The first organ that sperm pass through is the __________

spermatogonia

Which of these is oldest type of cell present in the testis?
secondary spermatocytes
spermatids
primary spermatocytes
spermatogonia

interstitial cells

Testosterone is produced by __________

seminal gland (seminal vesicle)

The organ that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is the

tunica albuginea

The __________ is the dense connective tissue that surrounds each testis.

both the cremaster and the dartos

Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
the tunica muscularis
the biceps brachii
the cremaster
the dartos
both the cremaster and the dartos

secrete testosterone.

The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they
support spermiogenesis.
secrete testosterone.
secrete androgen-binding protein.
secrete inhibin.
maintain the blood-testis barrier.

spermatocytes.

When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called

spermatozoa

The process of spermiogenesis produces

4, 1, 3, 2

Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.

1. ductus deferens
2. urethra
3. ejaculatory duct
4. epididymis

spermatogonia

Semen contains all of the following, except
prostaglandins.
spermatogonia.
spermatozoa.
fibrinogen.
seminal fluid.

prepuce.

The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the

glans penis.

The urethral meatus is an opening in the

corpus spongiosum.

The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the

urinary

The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?

are found in the seminiferous tubules, form the blood-testis barrier, and coordinate spermatogenesis

Nurse cells

tunica vaginalis

The delicate layer of serous membrane that covers the testis is called the

40-45

The ductus deferens is approximately ________ cm long.

250 million

A typical ejaculation releases approximately ________ sperm

in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct

Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?

increased sex drive, decreased levels of GnRH, decreased levels of LH and FSH

A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, what would you expect to observe?

inguinal canal

The ________ is an opening through which the spermatic cord passes

dartos

The ________ is a layer of smooth muscle in the skin of the scrotal sac.

spermiogenesis

Spermatids mature into spermatozoa by the process of ________

head

The ________ is the part of the sperm that contains the DNA

mitochondria

The middle piece of the sperm contains the ________ in a spiral arrangement

20-100 million

A normal sperm count ranges from approximately ________ to ________ spermatozoa per milliliter.

acrosomal cap

The ________ within the head of a sperm contains the enzymes essential for fertilization

2

A spermatozoon passes through the epididymis in about ________ weeks

prostatic urethra

The portion of the urethra that passes through the prostate is called the ________

membranous urethra

The portion of the urethra that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm is the ________

spongy urethra

The portion of the urethra that passes through the corpus spongiosum to the external urethral meatus is the ________

circumcision

The surgical removal of the prepuce is called ________

ejaculatory duct

The ________ carries fluid from the seminal gland (seminal vesicle) through the prostate.

scrotum

The ________ is a fleshy pouch suspended below the perineum and anterior to the anus.

may develop in response to testosterone and to estrogen.

Secondary sexual characteristics

isthmus

The segment of the uterine tube where fertilization commonly occurs is the

infundibulopelvic ligament

What structure extends from the lateral surface of the ovary, past the open end of the uterine tube, to the pelvic wall?

formation of immature gametes, secretion of hormones, production of oocytes, secretion of inhibin

Which is the function of the ovaries?

lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia

The round ligaments extend from the

follicle maturation

A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for

the functional zone of the endometrium is restored

During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle

endometrial glands enlarge., the corpus luteum is formed, the fertilized ovum implants, progesterone levels are high

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle

vestibule

The space bounded by the labia minora is the

progesterone

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is

fornix

The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix

fundus

The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the uterine tubes.

ovarian hilum

The region where blood vessels enter the ovary is called the

infundibulopelvic ligament

The fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis is called the

tertiary follicle

This causes a prominent bulge in the surface of the ovary

luteinizing hormone

A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in

both estrogen and progesterone.

After ovulation, the ovary secretes

the process of capacitation involves the removal of some inhibiting substances from the sperm

Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that

prevent the synthesis of estrogen, reduce the risk of breast cancer, bring on symptoms of menopause, increase the risk of osteoporosis

A drug that blocked the enzyme aromatase would do what to a patient?

has ciliated epithelium

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?

ovarian

The ________ ligament extends from the uterus, near the attachment of the uterine tube, to the medial surface of the ovary.

suspensory

The ________ ligament extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall.

infundibulum

The funnel-like opening at the distal end of the uterine tube is called the ________

fimbriae

The ________ are fingerlike projections that capture the freshly ovulated ovum.

ampulla

The expanded, initial segment of the uterine tube is called the

external os

Sperm enter the cervical canal through the ________.

perimetrium

The ________ is the outer lining of the uterus.

endometriosis

The painful condition that develops because endometrial tissue is present in the peritoneal cavity is ________

endometrium

The ________ is the inner lining of the uterus.

zona pellucida

The ________ is the glycoprotein-rich region between the developing oocyte and the granulosa cells.

antrum

The fluid-filled cavity that appears in a secondary follicle is called the ________

functionalis

The stratum ________ is the endometrial layer that undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle.

Vaginitis

________ is an inflammation of the vaginal canal, caused by fungi, bacteria, or parasites.

Mammary glands

________ are the organs of milk production.

seminal vesicle, ampulla, prostate

Emission of semen depends on smooth muscle contraction in which organs?

begins with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla, is responsible for propelling semen into the female reproductive tract, occurs under sympathetic stimulation, involves contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle.

Emission and ejaculation

there must be sufficient blood hydrostatic pressure, the sacral spinal cord must be intact, nitric oxide must be present.

For erection to occur

prostate

Contraction of the smooth muscle within the ________ acts to pinch off the urethra.

detumescence

The subsidence of an erection after ejaculation is known as _______

estrogen levels rise

Which of the following does NOT occur after menopause?
GnRH secretion increases
estrogen levels rise
menstrual cycles cease
FSH secretion increases
ovulation ceases

FSH and LH

After menopause, the production of two pituitary hormones increases. They are ________ and ________

interstitial cells.

Testosterone is secreted by the

Follicle-stimulating hormone

What stimulates spermatogenesis and stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary?

development

The gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period from conception to maturity is

third

The period of gestation that is characterized by rapid fetal growth and fat deposition is the ________ trimester.

first

The period of gestation when the rudiments of all major organ systems are established is the ________ trimester.

23

How many chromosomes do human gametes contain?

46

How many chromosomes do human somatic cells contain?

second

The period of gestation when organs and organ systems complete most of their development and the fetus looks distinctly human is the ________ trimester.

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