N, O, Ar, Ne, He, Kr, & Xe
Chemical composition of the atmosphere
Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, Particles, Chlorofluorocarbons
The "rest" of the atmosphere
decreases, 10 mb, & 100 m
In the low atmosphere, the pressure (blank) by about (blank) for every (blank) increase in elevation.
Air density & pressure always (blank) as we move up in the atmosphere.
Air density & pressure decrease rapidly at first, then more slowly at higher levels.
Troposphere & Mesophere
Temperature decreases with height
Stratosphere & Thermosphere
Temperature increases with height
1000 mb pressure
100 ~ 1 mb pressure
1 ~ 0.01 mb pressure
0.01 ~ 0.001 mb pressure
Most water vapor & clouds
Weak vertical mixing, fewer clouds. 99.89% of atmosphere below this level. Temperature increase with altitude due to absorption of solar radiation by ozone
Temperature drops dramatically with height, earth loses infared energy from this layer
Temperature changes to molecular level because density is so low. "Temperature" increases rapidly (Absorption of solar radiation by Oxygen & Nitrogen molecules). Temperature at 500 km is 1200 degrees celsius
> 500 km, transition from atmosphere to outer space
Horizontal movement of energy, gases & particles by the wind
Transfer of energy from 1 object to another due to temperature differences
Heat transport from hot to cold areas. Warm ground surface heats overlying air by this. LEAST important heat transport mechanism in the atmosphere because air is an extremely poor conductor!
Transfer of energy by the movement of air. The rate of energy transferred depends on the temperature of the rising air parcel compared to the temperature of its surrounding atmosphere. An EFFICIENT way to transfer heat in the atmosphere
Phase changes of water; the heat required to change a substance from one state to another. It is an IMPORTANT source of atmospheric energy.
Melting - Evaporation
Condensation - Freezing
dependance on temperature (energy, peak wavelength); the emission or propagation of energy, all objects with a temp above absolute zero emit (blank).
Carries more energy than long wave radiation
a (blank) emits much MORE radiation than a cooler object
depends on the temperature of the body being measured
Solar Radiation - Terrestrial Radiation
Has peak intensities in the shorter wavelengths. Dominant in the region we know as visible, but extends at low intensity into long wave regions
Atmospheric gases are _____ to visible radiation.
Water vapor...carbon dioxide
___ and ___ are strong absorbers (also emitters) of infrared radiation.
___ and ___ are good absorbers of ultraviolet radiation (keeps us from getting burned)
Water Vapor (1)...carbon dioxide (1)
___ and ___ are important atmospheric greenhouse gases that selectively absorb and emit infrared radiation, thereby keeping the earth's average surface temperature warmer than it would be otherwise.
___ temperatures during the night and early morning hours are usually observed at the ___
increases...height...nocturnal radiation inversion
Temperature ___ with ___ near the earth's surface at night, a condition called ___
clear, calm & dry
Coldest nights occur (typically in winter) when the air is ___ .
higher altitudes equals:
night...cools by giving up more...
During the ___, the earth's surface ___ infrared radiation than it receives. A process called radiational cooling.
During the ___, the surface of the earth and the air above it will continue to warm as long as incoming energy (mainly sunlight) exceeds outgoing heat energy from the surface.
Effect of Aspect
South facing slopes receive greater solar energy
The ___ to a large body of water, the smaller the temperature range.
___ of 23.5 degrees and revolution around the sun creates seasonal solar exposure and heating patterns.