the dung and urine of cattle, horses, poultry, and other farm animals. It improves soil structure, adds organic nitrogen, and stimulates beneficial soil bacteria and fungi.
raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
deficiencies of protein and other key nutrients—which weakens them, makes them more susceptible to disease, and hinders the normal physical and mental development of children.
chronic undernutrition, or hunger
People who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs
commercial inorganic fertilizer
various minerals that restore some of the plant nutrients that have been washed, blown, or leached out of the soil, or that have been removed by repeated crop harvesting.
produced when microorganisms in soil break down organic matter such as leaves, crop residues, food wastes, paper, and wood in the presence of oxygen.
It occurs when the productive potential of soil, especially on arid or semiarid land, falls by 10% or more because of a combination of prolonged drought and human activities that reduce or degrade topsoil.
occurs when there is a severe shortage of food in an area accompanied by mass starvation, many deaths, economic chaos, and social disruption.
a concentration of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water.
living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition, which threatens their ability to lead healthy and productive lives.
means that every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life.
consists of freshly cut or growing green vegetation that is plowed into the topsoil to increase the organic matter and humus available to the next crop.
Since 1950, about 88% of the increase in global food production has come from using high-input industrialized agriculture to increase yields
industrialized agriculture, or high input agriculture
uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops, or monocultures.
integrated pest management (IPM)
each crop and its pests are evaluated as parts of an ecological system. Then farmers develop a control program that uses a combination of cultivation, biological controls, and chemical tools and techniques, applied in a carefully coordinated way.
crops that are grown with little or no use of synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, or genetically engineered seeds.
made from plant and animal wastes.
occurs when food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat. Too many calories, too little exercise, or both can cause this
any species that interferes with human welfare by competing with us for food, invading lawns and gardens, destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading ecosystems, or simply being a nuisance.
chemicals used to kill or control populations of organisms that humans consider undesirable.
is a form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical developing countries.
growing several crops on the same plot simultaneously
a soil degradation process of repeated annual applications of irrigation water in dry climates lead to the gradual accumulation of salts in the upper soil layers
This type of subsistence agriculture involves burning and clearing small plots in tropical forests, growing a variety of crops for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients, and then shifting to other plots.
involves using a variety of ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility, mostly by keeping the soil covered with vegetation.
the movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil, from one place to another by the actions of wind and water.
traditional intensive agriculture
farmers increase their inputs of human and draft-animal labor, fertilizer, and water to obtain higher crop yields.
traditional subsistence agriculture
uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough crops for a farm family's survival, with little left over to sell or store as a reserve in hard times.
water accumulates underground and gradually raises the water table.