Along with Mohenjo-daro, this was the world's first planned city. This was in Pakistan/Northwest India about 4,000 years ago.
Along with Harappa, this was the world's first planned city. This was in Pakistan/Northwest India about 4,000 years ago.
The historic predecessor to Hinduism.
The god of rainstorms and war, who was made sacrifices to by the people of Vedism.
A courageous and virtuous ruler in the Ramayana. It is the seventh reincarnation of this god, who had come to free the world from evil forces.
The power that ruled, in the third century BCE, perhaps the largest empire ever created by an Indian dynasty. Their greatest leader, this man, built roads, established a large administration for collecting taxes and dispersing justice and showed remarkable tolerance toward all religious sects.
"The Indian Shakespeate," he wrote exceptional plays in Sanskrit.
A tax placed on non-muslim citizens.
An empire that ruled through the same family for 150 years. They reformed government, encouraged artistry, and worked to unite their subjects.
The first Mughal ruler, an invader from Central Asia. He died in 1530, and was a Muslim.
The son of Babur, the first Mughal ruler, he helped his father carve out a mighty empire.
The grandson of Babur, he has been called India's greatest ruler. By 1600, his empire ruled approximately 100 million of India's 140 million people.
An act made by Akbar, that meant universal tolerance.
The grandson of Akbar, he helped the Mughal Empire reached its greatest splendor. He rebuilt the city of Delhi, and built the Taj Mahal to honor his deceased wife.
The last great Mughal emperor, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, he was the son of Shah Jahan. He was a deevout Muslim and quote strict in his beliefs.
A great leader of the Western Ghats, he lived during the time of Aurangzeb. He was famous for his Robin Hood-like exploits.
A movement that simplified Hinduim into the love of an idividual for his or her personal god, usually Vishnu or Siva.
Influenced by the Bhaktism movement, this group believed that the soul was in exile from God and longed to return. Loving god was the key. Like the bhaktis, they rejected the formality of their faith.
The followers of the Guru Nanak, they were mostly peaceful farmers. They would be persecuted harshly by the Mughals.
A strict religious order transformed by Guru Gobind Singh.
British East India Company
A grou p of English merchants that joined together to form this company in 1600. They strove to avoid conflict and focused on gaining wealth.
Another name for Fort William, the settlement that the Mughals allowed the Company to have.
The young Englishman that defeated the French.
The first governor-general in 1773, he was advised to proceed cautiously.
The fifth governor-general, he had a quite different view of his country's role. He conquered additional territory along the eastern coast and in the southern peninsula.
A custom which as made illegal in 1829. Previously a widow was burned to death on the funeral pyre of her husband.
NAtive soldiers that mostly made up the Indian Army.
Bahadur Shah II
The person to whom the sepoys declared their allegiance, he was the 82 year old king of DElhi and the former Mughal EMpire.
A company trading center on the Ganges River.
Government of India Act of 1858
An Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858. Its provisions called for the liquidation of the British East India Company (who had up to this point been ruling British India under the auspices of Parliament) and the transference of its functions to the British Crown.
India Councils Act of 1909
Commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
Another name for the India Councils Act of 1909.
Government of India Act of 1919
This was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India. The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. This retraction of British imperialism was a result of India's enthusiastic participation in World War I.
Government of India Act of 1935
This act was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to have been the longest (British) Act of Parliament ever enacted by that time. Because of its length, the Act was retroactively split by the Government of India (Reprinting) Act 1935 (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 1) into two separate Acts.
A British Labour politician of the first half of the 20th century. During World War II he served in a number of positions in the wartime coalition, including Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Minister of Aircraft Production. After the war he served in the Attlee Ministry, firstly as President of the Board of Trade and between 1947 and 1950 as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
An intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states. All but two of these countries (Mozambique and Rwanda) were formerly part of the British Empire, out of which it developed.
Cabinet Mission of March 1946
Cripps' last attempt to create a free and united India. The Cabinet Mission worked with four major groups: the Congress Party, the Muslim League, the Unionist Party, and the Sikhs. They all wished for an end to British ruled but they argued vehemently over what an independent India would look like.
A civil servant, political reformer and amateur ornithologist in British India. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress, a political party that was later to lead the Indian independence movement.
Self-reliance and self-rule. These were the two beliefs advocated by Tilak, and caused him to be imprisoned.
a law passed by the British in colonial India in March 1919, indefinitely extending "emergency measures" (of the Defence of India Regulations Act) enacted during the First World War in order to control public unrest and root out conspiracy. Passed on the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee, named for its president, British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, this act effectively authorized the government to imprison for a maximum period of two years, without trial, any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj. The Rowlatt Act gave British imperial authorities power to deal with revolutionary activities.
Reginald Dyer/ Amritsar
The Brigadier-General. On April 13th, 1919, he ordered his troops to fire into a mass meeting held within a walled garden in this city that was in the province of Punjab.
a particular philosophy and practice within the broader overall category generally known as nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term was conceived and developed by Mahatma Gandhi. He deployed it in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa.
A concept that was tied closely with Satyagraha, it meant non-violence, and more specifically, that love remains once all violence has ended within oneself.
It was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka (now Bangladesh), in 1906, in the context of the circumstances that were generated over the partition of Bengal in 1905. Being a political party to secure the interests of the Muslim diaspora in British India, the Muslim League played a decisive role during the 1940s in the Indian independence movement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in the Indian subcontinent.
a Hindu nationalist political party in India. It was founded in 1915, as an alternative for Hindus who were not attracted to the secular Indian National Congress and sought to oppose the Muslim separatism of the Muslim League.
A poem that played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
an agreement between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. In 1916, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, a member of the Muslim League, negotiated with the Indian National Congress to reach an agreement to pressure the British government to adopt a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
a Muslim lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan.
"Now or Never"
A pamphlet published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, an Indian Muslim studying in England, which called for a completely separate state for Muslims.
Cabinet Mission Goals
In the arguments, the Cabinet Mission had two main goals. 1. To help the Indian people reach an agreement that would establish a free and united India (hopefully within the British Commonwealth). 2. To create an interim government of Indian leaders that would assist the British Viceroy, Archibald Wavell, in governing India until it was granted independence.
Land of the Pure/ Khalistan
What the Sikhs were calling for.
Direct Action Day
A day called by Jinnah, August 16, for Muslims to show their disapporval of Congress.
The governor-general appointed by the British government who arried in India in March 1947. He decided to act quiclky and set a date for independence.
The date for independence, set by Lord Mountbatten.
The first prime minister of India after independence was gained, he remained the leader until his death in 1964.
The daughter of Nehru, who became prime minister during a period of monumental change for India.
The son of Gandhi, who led the Congress Party to victory in 1985 and became prime minister until 1989. He was assasinated while campaigning during the 1991 elections.
mainstream center-left, secular political party in Bangladesh. It is also currently the governing party after winning the 2008 Parliamentary elections in Bangladesh.