the study of interaction between organisms and their environment
non living component includes chemical and physical factors
order of ecology
organismal, population, community, ecosystem
level of ecology is concerned with the adaptations of individuals
level of ecology concerned with groups of individuals of the same species
level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of different species
a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
all organisms that inhabits a particular area
level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environments
primary source of energy for nearly all of earth's ecosystems
solar energy from the sunlight
which nutrients often limit the distribution and abundance of photosynthesis organisms
water sunlight and carbon dioxide
physical and physiological changes experienced by astronauts who spend time in space
milder climate then the tropics pr polar regions
long snowy winte
temperate broadleaf forest
region where photosynthesis can occur
transitional biome between aquatic ecpsystem and a terrestrial one
river and ocean
most biologically productive of all biomes
region where sea meets land
where photoplankton found
increase due to
humans and large mammals
intermediate, no more vulnerable at one stage of life cycle than another
low for a very long time , followed by high for those who live a certain age
take immediate advantage of favorable conditions, type 3
Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history are/do what?
reach sexual maturity slowly, produce few, well cared for offspring, large bodied and longer lived, type 1
What is The number of individuals of a population per unit area?
In the absence of limiting factors, a population's growth follows what type of model?
exponential population growth
What is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support?
depends on the species and the resource available in the habitat
According to the logistic growth model, what happens to a population when the size of the population reaches carrying capacity?
they start dying out
What type of Competition is it where there is competition among individuals of the same species?
Know factors which operate in a density-dependent manner?
may include accumulation of toxic wastes, limited food supply, limited territory
Over time what happens with the populations of most species?
are relatively stable
An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks, would be an example of what?
density independent factor
The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that are?
in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant competition
Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by doing what?
invasive species - non native species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction and cause environmental or economic change by colonizing and dominating suitable habitats
The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is called?
Most crop pests are/do what
have an opportunistic life history pattern, can cause extensive crop damage
Integrated pest management is?
uses a combination of biological chemical and cultural methods for sustainable control of argricultural pests
In most developing countries, how are the populations (relating to births and deaths)?
birth rates have dropped and high birth rates persist
A study of the human ecological footprint would show?
an estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individuals or a population consumes
The ecological footprint of the United States shows?
is 9.4 hectares per person, The United States has an abundance of possessions