Psychology Ch 11 12 13

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Final

According to the _______ of helping, we are especially likely to help and to care for our close relatives over strangers.

Evolutionary Perspective

You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that _____.

He has an angry and volatile personality

Results of Milgram's experiment showed that participants were more likely to fail to comply with the authority figure's requests when _____.

The victim was made to seem more human

Lily does not approve of abortion. She is shocked when she finds out how many people in her state hold pro-choice attitudes. This is an example of ______.

The false consensus effect

In a recent study (M. Bertrand & S. Mullainathan, 2003), researchers sent 5,000 fictitious resumes to companies advertising in Chicago and Boston. Applicants with "black-sounding" names were 50 percent LESS likely to be called for an interview than those with "white-sounding" names. This unfair treatment based on the group to which someone belongs (or seems to belong) is called _____.

Discrimination

_____________ theory contends that behaviors can cause attitudes.

Self-Perception

Juanita returned home after being away for several years. When she saw her father, whom she thought she disliked, she hugged him and cried. Based on her crying when she saw him, she determined that she must like him more than she thought. This is most consistent with the _____ of attitudes.

Self Perception Theory

Ralph just started taking guitar lessons last week. Jimi has been playing guitar for almost 20 years. According to the concept of social faciliation, performing in front of an audience of strangers and friends tonight will likely ______ Ralph's performance and ______ Jimi's performance

Decrease/ Increase

Aggressive behavior has been linked with low levels of _____.

Serotonin

When individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person, they are displaying _____

Affectionate Love

Which of the following factors INCREASES the likelihood of an aggressive response

Physical Pain, Heat, Being personally attacked or insulted.

The bystander effect is most likely to occur ______.

when someone is witnessing an emergency and there are several other bystanders present

According to the evolutionary theory of attraction, men tend to seek mates who are ____ and women tend to seek mates who are ______.

young and beautiful / financially stable

Social psychology is the study of ______.

Social thinking, social influence, social relations

Cognitive dissonance theory states that in order to reduce dissonance, individuals _____.

try to align their attitudes and behavior

Lily does not approve of abortion. She is shocked when she finds out how many people in her state hold pro-choice attitudes. This is an example of ______.

the false consensus effect

Dave is a handsome and famous celebrity. He has been in a dating relationship with Gabriela, a beautiful and popular actress, for the past two months but he doesn't feel that strongly committed to their relationship. Recently, Dave has been working on a new movie and several women have expressed their interest in getting to know him better. Dave is now contemplating whether he should stay with Gabriela or explore other tempting alternative relationships. According to the investment model, what will Dave probably do next?

He will probably break up with Gabriela and give in to the temptation of dating other women.

When many people first learn of the classic conformity and obedience studies, they often believe that the participants in these studies are weak-minded people and they tend to underestimate the power of the social situation. This is an example of ______.

the fundamental attribution error

According to _____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request.

the foot-in-the-door technique

_____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.

Cognitive dissonance

Randy experienced a horrific childhood. She was physically and verbally abused by her mother and sexually abused by a stepfather. Years later, she began experiencing anxiety symptoms. A diagnosis of _____ would best apply to her situation.

post-traumatic stress disorder

Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would try to study hard, but the results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing he tried seemed to work. Joshua has developed ______.

learned helplessness

What differentiates people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from those who don't have OCD but may have some tendencies related to OCD, such as experiencing anxiety-provoking thoughts?

The ability to ignore or dismiss intrusive thoughts

According to the biopsychosocial model, abnormal behavior is influenced ______.

by the combination or interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of a depressive disorder?

Flashbacks and nightmares

Drug companies commonly fund research that focuses on the _______ approach to psychological disorders.

biological

Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) _____

anxiety disorder

Major depressive disorder is ______, whereas bipolar disorder is ______.

more common among women / equally common in men and women

Though they can occur independently, _____ frequently accompany obsessions and appear to serve the function of reducing the anxiety created by such disturbing thoughts.

Compulsions

Maria is a social worker in an urban community mental health center. She has just seen a crisis client who expressed suicidal ideation. After doing a thorough assessment to determine that he needed inpatient care, she sent him to the hospital and must now write her notes about the session. She codes her client's depression on _____.

Axis I

Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) _____.

anxiety disorder

Critics of the medical model of abnormal behavior argue that ADHD reflects a(n) ______.

social construct rather than a psychological disorder

Which of the following is NOT classified as an anxiety disorder?

Depression

According to the biopsychosocial model, abnormal behavior is influenced ______.

by the combination or interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors

In 1973 Rosenhan conducted a study in which eight healthy individuals were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did the results of this study demonstrate?

Being labeled with a mental disorder creates a self-fulfilling prophecy that changes the way mental health professionals evaluate and treat you.

Which of the following statements about dissociative identity disorder is FALSE

Each personality has knowledge of the memories, behaviors, and relationships of the other personalities

______ are recurrent thoughts, whereas ______ are recurrent behaviors

Obsessions / compulsions

The American Psychiatric Association defines abnormal behavior primarily through the _____ approach.

Biological

Individuals who suffer from ______ have an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations.

Social Phobia

Abigail suffers from a dissociative disorder. Abigail would likely show lower volume in which of the following brain regions?

The amygdala and hippocampus

A major advantage to group therapy is that ______.

clients have more opportunity to develop social skills

Your psychotherapist asks you to "free associate." What are you being asked to do?

You are being asked to just "talk" in an undirected manner without reflecting on what you are about to say.

Clients of therapists who do not monitor the quality of the therapeutic alliance are ______.

more likely to drop out of therapy

A therapy is considered effective if ______.

it frees a person from the negative effects of a psychological disorder

Researchers have found that when there is an ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnic-specific services are provided, ________.

clients have better treatment outcomes

Which form of psychotherapy has been shown to be the most effective in treating psychological disorders?

All of the above can be equally effective.

Alice is trying to decide on a type of therapy. Two that were recommended to her were Heinz Kohut's contemporary psychodynamic therapy and humanistic psychotherapy. What do these therapies have in common?

They both believe that empathy and understanding are needed in therapeutic interactions.

Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in _____.

family therapy

"I have never been a good problem solver. I am not direct enough to be successful," the client complained. "You do not see yourself as a direct problem solver?" responded the therapist. This conversation is an example of ______ and is typical of ______.

reflective speech / client-centered therapy

Which of the following statements about psychosurgery is FALSE

The effects of psychosurgery can be reversed with intensive therapy.

Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. The types of techniques that she is likely to use would include ______.

free association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client's resistance to discussing painful memories

Luanne is being treated for depression after a breakup with her boyfriend. Her therapist points out that her thoughts, and not the situation itself, cause her depression. Luanne's therapist seems to practice _______ therapy.

Beck's cognitive

The primary goal of behavior therapy is to _______.

reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior

Research has shown that online support groups are more likely to emerge for _____.

problems that are potentially stigmatizing and for problems that are more likely to be suffered by women rather than men

Which of the following statements about biological therapies is FALSE?

Psychologists can prescribe drugs for psychological disorders in most states

A therapist challenges her client during a therapy session by saying, "So what if your fiancée left you and married your roommate instead? Why does that mean that you are not a good person?" The therapist is working from which perspective?

Rational-emotive behavior

Systematic desensitization involves ______

pairing a feared stimulus with a state of deep relaxation by being exposed to feared situations in a gradual hierarchical fashion

James dreamed that he went to his neighbor's house at midnight and made himself a sandwich. His psychoanalyst interpreted the dream to mean that James really wanted to have sex with his neighbor's wife. Making the sandwich was the ______.

manifest content of the dream

Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in _____.

Family therapy

One goal of cognitive therapy may be to help individuals gain control over automatic emotional reactions in the ______ with control processes originating in the _____

amygdala / prefrontal cortex

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