King Leopold II
King of Belgium (1865-1909)
was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules of the colonization of Africa
the Boer War
War fought between 1899 and 1903 over the continued independence of Boer republics
resulted in British victory, but began the process of decolonization in South America.
a settlement ruled by another country
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs
sphere of influence
the geographical area in which one nation is very influential
the policy or practice of treating or governing people in a fatherly way
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
the Battle of Adowa
when Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and kept their nation independent
Ethiopia was ruled by Menelik II who was the one who was able to resist foriegn control.
Sultan Selim III
He became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1789
attempted to modernize the army but they resisted and was then over thrown
the last effort to reform the empire and many other empires have notice their decline and were taking much interest in it.
a foreign policy based on a consideration of the strategic locations or products of other lands
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on and Turkey, Britain, and France.
Russia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps
opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia.
led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
An Indian soldier serving under British command.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
(1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; had different interests, and were crushed by the British
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
special economic zone
a point in time in which China allowed no trade or very little trade
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Treaty of Nanjing
ended Opium war
said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws.
this treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these was Hong Kong.
held reigns of power from 1862 to 1908. Did support traditional values but accepted some reforms. She accepted the self-strengthening movement
The Dowgar Empress's program to update China's educational system, diplomatic service and military. It had mixed results. However, China learned how to make their own war ships
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Commodore Perry Mission
Commodore Matthew Perry took four ships into what is now Tokyo Harbor. These massivw black wooden ships powered by steam astounded the Japanese. The ships cannons also shocKed them and the Tukugawa shogun realized they had no choice but to recieve Perry and the letter perry brought from the US discussing opening Japanese ports to trade.
Treaty of Kanagawa
an 1854 agreement between the United States and Japan, which opened two Japanese ports to U.S. ships and allowed the United States to set up an embassy in Japan.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China,
A war between the Russian empire and Japan in 1904-05, caused by territorial disputes in Manchuria and Korea. Russia suffered a series of humiliating defeats, and the peace settlement gave Japan the ascendancy in the disputed region
the threat to Western civilization said to arise from the power of Asiatic peoples
The system which Latin Americans worked for large land owners, and were forced into debt. It was very much like share-cropping.
military dictator in Latin America
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836. However, a war at sea between Mexico and Texas would continue into the 1840s.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
Defeated Mexican leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago on Feb. 2, 1848. Mexico gave the U.S. more than 50,00 square miles of territory. (what is now calisfornia, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado)
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
1855, Benito Juarez and other liberals open an era; offered hope to oppressed people of Mexico, revised the Mexican constitution to strip military power and end Church privileges; unleashed a civil war, but was still elected president in 1861
soldier and president of Mexico (1877-80, 1884-1911), who established a strong centralized state that he held under firm control for more than three decades
early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
Mexican revolutionary who led a revolt for agrarian reforms (1879-1919) with Pancho Villa