Chapter 16: Stress and Health

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Stressors

Specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being

Stress

The physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors

Health Psychology

The subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health

Chronic Stressor

A source of stress that occurs continuously or repeatedly

Fight-or-flight response

An emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

A three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered

Immune System

A complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances

Lymphocytes

White blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection

Type A behavior pattern

The tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

A disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind

Burnout

a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation

Repressive Coping

Avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint

Rational Coping

Facing a stressor and working to overcome it

Reframing

Finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat

Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)

A therapy that helps people to cope with stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about the situation

Relaxation Therapy

A technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body

Relaxation Response

A condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure

Biofeedback

The use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function

Social Support

The aid gained through interacting with others

Psychosomatic Illness

An interaction between mind and body that can produce illness

Somatoform Disorders

The set of psychological disorders in which the person displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition

Hydrochondriasis

A psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life-threatening illness

Somatization Disorder

A psychological disorder involving combinations of multiple physical complaints with no medical explanation

Conversion Disorder

A disorder characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary-but that the person experience as involuntary

Sick Role

A socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness

Self-regulation

The exercise of voluntary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards

If you live in a dense urban area in which there are considerable traffic, noise, and pollution, to what kinds of stressors are you likely exposed?

Chronic stressors

In an experiment, two groups are subject to distractions while attempting to complete a task. Group A is told they can quiet the distraction by pushing a button. This information is withheld from

Group A has perceived control over a source of performance-impeding stress

The brain activation that occurs in response to a threat begins in the

Hypothalamus

According to the general adaptation syndrome, during the _____ phase, the body adapts to its high state of arousal as it tries to cope with a stressor

Resistance

Engaging in aerobic exercise is a way of managing stress by managing the

Body

Finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat is called

Reframing

Which somatoform disorder is characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary?

Conversion disorder

Faking an illness is a violation of

The sick role

What describes a successful healthcare provider?

Empathy, attentive to both the physical and psychological state of the patient, uses psychology to promote patient compliance

What are traits associated with hardiness?

A sense of commitment, a belief in control, a willingness to accept challenge

Stress _______ the self-regulation of behaviors such as eating and smoking.

Disrupts

_______ are specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten a person's well-being.

Stressors

According to a 1980 study of airport noise, children attending schools under a flight path:

Had higher blood pressure than did children in schools in other areas

Where are the adrenal glands located?

On the kidneys

Who described the general adaptation syndrome and coined the term stress?

Hans Selye

What is caused by atherosclerosis?

Coronary Heart Disease, a gradual narrowing of the arteries, a buildup of plaque int he cardiovascular system

The interpretation of a stimulus as stressful or not is called _______; determining whether the stressor can or cannot be handled is called ______.

Primary appraisal; secondary appraisal

_______ is the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly enable control over the function

Biofeedback

Shelly Taylor suggests that the female response to stress is to ______, whereas the male response to stress is ______.

Tend-and-befriend; fight-or-flight

What are three somatoform disorders?

Hypochondriasis, Somatization Disorder, Conversion Disorder

_______ psychology is concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health

Health

Several studies have shown that _______ in a stressful situation can shield us from the negative effects of the stressor

Perceived control

_______, released from the pituitary, activates the adrenal glands to energize the fight-or-flight response

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

______ are cells that produce antibodies that fight infection

Lymphocytes

A final exam that you studied for could be interpreted as a ______; a final exam that you didn't study for could be interpreted as a _______.

Challenge; threat

According to the text, aerobic exercise can reduce:

Depression, anger, and cynical distrust

What areas of the brain are active in processing pain?

Cingulated cortex, somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex

What 3 conditions decrease compliance in treatment?

The number of treatments increases, the treatment is inconvenient, the treatment is frequent

What is the highest stress rating on the College Undergraduate Stress Scale?

Taking finals

What group of biochemicals is increased in response to the activation of emotional systems?

Catecholamines

What is the order of phases in the general adaptation syndrome?

Alarm, resistance, exhaustion

Which two components of the Type A behavior pattern have been found to contribute to heart disease?

Hostility and anger

Cohen found that long-tailed macaques were more stressed when they were in a(n) ______ group of monkeys, and the monkeys who showed the most stress were those that showed little _____ behavior.

Unstable; affiliative

The _____ effect, in which a therapeutically inert substance or procedure evokes a clinically significant psychological or physiological response, relies on the _____ that the treatment is real.

Placebo; belief

A person who got married, had a baby, and started a new job all within a year may have a _________ score on a stress scale than someone whose mother had a serious illness in the last year.

Higher

Which of the following mental health professionals would be most interested in how noise pollution affects the stress levels of children in elementary school?

An environmental psychologist

Brain activation in response to threats occurs in the:

Hypothalamus

What are the three parts of the HPA axis?

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland

In what phase of the general adaptation syndrome reaction to stress does the body adapt to its high state of arousal in an attempt to cope with the stressor?

Resistance

Type A personalities are at:

Increased risk of heart disease because they react to stress and adversity with anger and hostility.

You sit down in history class and the teacher comes out with a pop quiz. You are stressed and likely consider the quiz a _________ since you have not yet read the chapter you are being quizzed on.

Threat

Burnout refers to

Physical, mental and emotional decline associated with a long-term demanding activity.

Rima always hated giving class presentations because she felt like the students in class were judging her. For her next presentation she decided to focus on her ability to teach the class something and she ended up enjoying her assignment. This example best illustrates what type of stress management?

Reframing

A specific trait related to hardiness involves all of the following except

Conscientiousness

Which of the following groups relies to the greatest degree on social support as a way of reducing stress?

Women

What is a beneficial stress management technique for trying to eat wisely?

Focusing on increasing activity

What is true about the placebo effect?

Somewhat dependent upon the conscious expectation that the placebo will work, deactivate brain regions associated with pain sensation, decrease pain, in part, by triggering the release of endorphins

What is an example of a chronic stressor?

Financial difficulties

It is probably easier to deal with the stress you experience when you get a bad grade on a paper than to deal with the stress you experience from getting a bad haircut because:

You have some control over your grades by putting more or less effort into your work

During a fight-or-flight response, the __________ release(s) __________

Adrenal glands; ACTH

Women who are involved in intense physical training such as long-distance running sometimes stop menstruating and their bodies shut down other processes not necessary for immediate survival. What phase of the general adaptation syndrome does this best describe?

Resistence

Chronic stress __________ the chances of contracting an infection and _________the risk of suffering a heart attack

Increases; increases

You try and determine if a stressor is a threat or a challenge during:

Secondary Appraisal

After experiencing a traumatic event such as living or working in a war zone or being physically attacked, it is not uncommon to develop:

PTSD

One technique for coping with stress, known as _________, is to avoid thinking about or experiencing the situation that makes you stressed and convince yourself to think positive thoughts instead.

Repressive coping

Studies have indicated that aerobic exercise _________ psychological well-being

Promotes

What is probably the most effective way to deal with stress across your life span?

Having social support through family or friends

Somatoform disorders, such as conversion disorder, demonstrate that:

The mind can produce physical illness without any physiological cause

The idea of a "sick-role" states that

There are social norms associated with being sick and regulating the behaviors of a sick person

In one study, business executives who scored very high on the index of stressful life events seemed impervious to the physical effects of stress in that they had few illnesses. However, they all shared the personality characteristic of

Hardiness

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