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Chapter 7 Section 3

THE MAGNA CARTA

1215
placed limits on the power of the monarch

ENLIGHTENMENT

1700s
a movement that promoted knowledge, reason, and science as the means to improve society

JOHN LOCKE

an English philosopher
believed that all people have natural rights

BARON DE MONTESQUIEU

French writer
declared that the powers of government should be separated and balanced against each other, preventing no one from getting too much power

NATURAL RIGHTS

include the rights to life,liberty, and property

FEDERALISM

sharing power between the federal and state governments
one of the distinctive features of the US government

CONSTITUTION

allowed federal government to tax, regulate trade, control the currency, raise an army, and declare war
the states had the power to pass and enforce laws, regulate trade within their borders, establish local governments, schools, and other institutions, and had the power to tax and build roads

ARTICLES

parts

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

lawmaking branch

EXECUTIVE BRANCH

headed by the president

ELECTORAL COLLEGE

special group that elects the president and vice president

JUDICIAL BRANCH

court system

CHECKS AND BALANCES

built in by the Framers to keep any one branch from gaining too much power

RATIFY

to approve

FEDERALISTS

supporters of the new constitution

JOHN JAY

one of the three of the nation's most gifted political thinkers
backed the Constitution

ANTIFEDERALISTS

opposed ratification of the Constitution

PATRICK HENRY

gave fiery speeches against the proposed Constitution
argued that it didn't well limit the power of the federal government

AMENDMENT

something added to a document
used on the Constitution, adding on the Bill of Rights

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