Chapters 12 & 15

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personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

psychoanalytical theory

The __________ __________ proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality.

humanistic

The __________ approach focused on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

unconscious

according to Freud, a seservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.

id

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The ___ operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ___ operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

manifest content

The remembered content of dreams is the _______ _______.

latent content

The dreamer's unconscious wishes is the ______ ________.

ego

The _______ contains our partly conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories.

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.

fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

regression

retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

reaction formation

switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites.

reaction formation

an example of ________ ________ is repressing angry feelings, a person displays exaggerated friendliness.

projection

disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

projection

an example of _________: "the thief thinks everyone else is a thief."

rationalization

offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions.

displacement

shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person.

denial

refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities.

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach inkblot test, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.

Rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analysing their interpretations of the blots.

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results

b

Freud believed that we may block from consciousness the thoughts, wishes, feelings, or memories that are unbearably painful or unacceptable. He called this unconscious process
a. free association
b. repression
c. anxiety
d. identification

c

According to Freud's view of personality structure, the "executive" system, the _______, seeks to gratify the impulses of the ________ in more acceptable ways.
a. id; ego
b. ego;superego
c. ego;id
d. id; superego

b

Freud proposed that the development of the "voice of conscience" is related to the _______, which internalizes ideals and provides standards for judgments.
a. ego
b. superego
c. id
d. collective unconscious

b

According to the psychoanalytic view of development, we all pass through a series of psychosexual stages, such as the oral, anal, and phallic stages. Conflicts unresolved at any of these stages may lead to
a. dormant sexual feelings
b. fixation in that stage
c. preconscious blocking of impulses
d. a distorted gender identity

oral

0-18 months, pleasure centers on the mouth-- sucking, biting, chewing

anal

18-36 months, pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control

phallic

3-6 years, pleasure is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings

latency

6 to puberty, dormant sexual feelings

genital

puberty on, maturation of sexual interests

b

Freud believed that all defense mechanisms distort or disguise relaity, and all are
a. conscious
b. unconscious
c. preconsious
d. rationalizations

d

Projective tests ask test-takers to respond to an ambiguous stimulus, for example, by describing it or telling a story about it. The creator of the well-known projective test that uses inkblots as stimuli was
a. Alfred Adler
b. Karen Horney
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Hermann Rorschach

d

In general, neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney accepted many of Freud's views but placed more emphasis on
a. development throughout the life span
b. the collective unconscious
c. the role of the id
d. social interactions

a

Psychodynamic theorists and therapists tend to reject Freud's view that sex is the basis of personality. But they would agree with Freud about
a. the existence of unconscious mental processes.
b. the Oedipus and Electra conplexes.
c. the predictive value of Freudian theory
d. the superego's role as the executive part of personality

a

Which of the following is not part of the contemporary view of the unconscious?
a. Repressed memories of anxiety-provoking events.
b. Schemas that influence our perceptions and interpretations.
c. Parallel processing that occurs without our conscious knowledge.
d. Instantly activated emotions and implicit memories of learned skills.

self actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychologial needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to achieve one's potential.

self transcendence

meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self

genuineness, acceptance, empathy

Carl Rogers said that growth-promoting climate required three conditions: _________, __________, ________

unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

self concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

d

Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that we must satisfy basic physiological and psychological needs before we seek self-actualization. Maslow based his ideas on
a. Freudian theory
b. his experiences with patients.
c. a series of laboratory experiments.
d. his study of healthy, creative people.

b

The total acceptance Rogers advocated as part of a growth-promoting environment is called
a. self-concept
b. unconditional positive regard
c. self-actualization
d. the "ideal self"

trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

personality inventory

a questionaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

MMPI

The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

What does MMPI stand for?

empirically derived test

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

conscientiousness

organized disorganized
careful careless
disciplined impulsive

agreeableness

soft-hearted ruthless
trusting suspicious
helpful uncooperative

neuroticism

calm anxious
secure insecure
self-satisfied self-pitying
(emotional stability vs. instability)

openness

imaginative practical
preference for variety preference for routine
independent conforming

extraversion

sociable retiring
fun-loving sober
affectionate reserved

CANOE

abbreviation for the big five traits

c

Trait theory describes personality in terms of characteristic behavior patterns, or traits, such as agreeableness or extraversion. A pioneering trait theorist was
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Alfred Adler
c. Gordon Allport
d. Carl Rogers

c

Personality inventories are long questionnaires that ask people to report their characteristic feelings and behaviors. One famous personality inventory is the
a. extraversion-introversion scale
b. person-situation inventory
c. mmpi
d. rorschach

b

Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality factors?
a. conscientiousness
b. anxiety
c. extraversion
d. agreeableness

b

People's scores on personality tests are only mildly predictive of their behavior. Such tests best predict
a. a person's behavior on a specific occasion
b. a person's average behavior across many situations
c. behavior involving a single trait, such as conscientiousness.
d. behavior that depends on the situation or context.

social cognitive theorists

Who believe we learn many of our behaviors either through conditioning or by observing others and modeling our behavior after theirs. Mental processes are also important. What we think about our situation affects our behavior. Instead of focusing on how our environment controls us (behaviorism), they focus on how we and our environment interact.

humanistic psychologists

Who focuses on the ways "healthy" people strive for self-determination and self-realization. They studied people through their own self-reported experiences and feelings.

social cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

biopsychosocial

The __________ approach to the study of personality looks at biological influences (genetically determined temperament, autonomic nervous system reactivity, brain activity), psychological influences (learned responses, unconscious thought processes, expectations and interpretations), and Social-cultural influences (influence of the situation, cultural expectations, social support).

personal control

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helplessness.

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyone your personal control determine your fate.

internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate.

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.

positive emotions

The 1st pillar is satisfaction with the past, happiness with the present, and optimism about the future.

1st

_________ pillar: positive emotions

positive character

The 2nd pillar focuses on enhancing creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self-control, leadership, wisdom, and spirituality.

2nd

________ pillar: positive character

positive groups, communities, and cultures

The 3rd pillar seeks to foster a positive social ecology, including healthy families, communal neighborhoods, effective schools, socially responsible media, and civil dialogue.

a

The social-cognitive perspective proposes that interacting with our environment involves reciprocal determinism, or mutual influences among personal factors, environmental factors, and behavior. An example of an environmental factor is:
a. the presence of books in a home.
b. a preference for outdoor play
c. the ability to read at a fourth-grade level
d. the fear of violent action on television

c

When elderly patients take an active part in managing their own care and surroundings, their morale and health tend to improve. Such findings indicate that people do better when they experience
a. learned helplessness
b. an external locus of control
c. an internal locus of control
d. reciprocal determinism

b

Seligman's research showed that a dog will respond with learned helplessness if it has received repeated shocks and has had
a. the opportunity to escape
b. no control over the shocks
c. pain or discomfort
d. no food or water prior to the shocks.

d

Critics say that ________ personality theory is very sensitive to the way people interact with particular situations, but it says little about their enduring traits.

self

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

self esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

self serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

d

The spotlight effect is our tendency to
a. perceive ourselves favorably and perceive others unfavorably
b. try out many possible selves
c. become excessively critical when made to feel insecure.
d. overstimate others' attention to and evaluation of our appearance, performance, and blunders

b

Researchers have found that low self-esteem tends to be linked with life problems. How should this link be interpreted?
a. Life problems cause low self-esteem
b. The answer isn't clear because the link is correlational and does not indicate cause and effect.
c. Low self-esteem leads to life problems
d. Because of the self-serving bias, we must assume that external factors cause low self-esteem

c

People tend to accept responsibility for their successes or good qualities and blame circumstances or luck for their failures. This is an example of
a. low self-esteem
b. self-actualization
c. self-serving bias
d. narcissism

c

The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages is:
A. oral, anal, phallic, genital, and latency.
B. oral, anal, latency, phallic, and genital.
C. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
D. anal, oral, phallic, latency, and genital.

a

This defense mechanism occurs when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. This is known as:
A. projection.
B. reaction formation.
C. rationalization.
D. repression.

a

Kayden had to take a Rorschach inkblot test for his new job. He is worried because he has heard that the Rorschach is not a very good test. Critics would agree and suggest that the Rorschach:
A. is not very reliable and that it has limited validity.
B. is not an personality test.
C. is not a projective test.
D. is an old test.

d

Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy are to ______________ as water, sun, and nutrients are to ______________.
A. self-concept; unconditional positive regard
B. self-love; self-esteem
C. therapy; therapist
D. positive growth in humans; the growth of healthy trees

a

The humanistic perspective has been criticized for promoting an excessive degree of:
A. individualism.
B. pessimism.
C. factor analysis.
D. personality testing

c

Carl Rogers said, "The only question which matters is, 'Am I living in a way that is deeply satisfying to me?'" Critics of Rogers are most likely to object to this statement because:
A. it encourages too much individualism, which can lead to self-indulgence and selfishness.
B. it encourages too much individualism, which can lead to an erosion of moral restraints.
C. Critics of Carl Rogers are likely to voice all of these objections.
D. it fails to recognize that people who focus beyond themselves are more likely to experience life satisfaction.

d

One of the Big Five personality factors is:
A. reciprocal determinism.
B. self-actualization.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. agreeableness.

d

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told, "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:
A. the spotlight effect.
B. an external locus of control.
C. the self-reference phenomenon.
D. the Barnum effect.

c

Raul is a guest in the home of his best friend while he is visiting. What do we know about his traits?
A. Raul's traits will be less constrained.
B. Raul's traits will be quite visible as he attends carefully to social cues.
C. Raul's traits will remain hidden as he attends carefully to social cues.
D. Raul will feel extremely comfortable.

a

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her situation. Her reaction best illustrates:
A. learned helplessness.
B. an Electra complex.
C. defensive self-esteem.
D. the spotlight effect.

d

earchers attempt to understand personality using biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. Analysis at the psychological level is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:
A. a reactive temperament.
B. erogenous zones.
C. ethnic background.
D. attributional style.

b

In a psychology class debate on the social-cognitive perspective, you need to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which of the following criticisms of the social-cognitive perspective can you cite?
A. People do not act with predictable consistency and behavior varies from one situation to the next.
B. This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person's inner traits.
C. This perspective focuses too much on the personality traits and fails to consider the situation.
D. This perspective has not built on psychological research on learning and cognition.

c

In Western psychology, the ___________ is thought to be the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions, as well as the pivotal center of the personality.
A. unconscious
B. id
C. self
D. human soul

d

Your 5-year-old niece loves to pretend she is a scientist. She also enjoys pretending she is a horse trainer. These pretend games allow children to:
A. commit the self-serving bias.
B. focus on others.
C. feel what the spotlight effect is like.
D. try out many possible selves.

b

When Vanessa noticed she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates:
A. the Barnum effect.
B. the spotlight effect.
C. the self-reference phenomenon.
D. reciprocal determinism.

b

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:
A. displacement.
B. repression.
C. the Oedipus complex.
D. reaction formation.

a

This Neo-Freudian proposed the popular idea of the inferiority complex and believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.
A. Adler
B. Maslow
C. Jung
D. Horney

d

Jacob picks up a hammer and begins pounding on the board just as his father is hammering nails into the wall. Jacob's actions are best explained by:
A. repression.
B. the Electra complex.
C. fixation.
D. identification.

a

According to Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote personality growth. These are:
A. genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
B. high self-esteem, honesty, and empathy
C. high self-esteem, genuineness, and acceptance
D. honesty, sincerity, and empathy

b

In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes everything EXCEPT:
A. acceptance.
B. altruism.
C. empathy.
D. genuineness.

b

According to Abraham Maslow, people are motivated by:
A. instincts.
B. a hierarchy of needs.
C. optimal arousal.
D. drive reduction.

b

He attributes differences in children's shyness and inhibition to their autonomic nervous system reactivity.
A. Eysenck
B. Kagan
C. Briggs
D. Myers

c

Psychologists would use _____________ to assess whether a single personality trait is reflected in a cluster of characteristics (e.g., ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance).
A. empirically derived testing
B. free association
C. factor analysis
D. projective testing

a

Eli has always been an extravert. There is some evidence that people like Eli seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. For example, extraverts:
A. exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition.
B. have greater levels of norepinephrine.
C. have lower levels of serotonin.
D. exhibit more activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition.

b

There is evidence that behavior is the result of the interplay between external and internal influences; that behavior is the product of biology, social experience, and unconscious thought processes. This evidence suggests that personality should be studied from a:
A. deterministic approach.
B. biopsychosocial approach.
C. developmental approach.
D. psychoanalytic approach.

d

Our _________________ is influenced by our biology, our social experiences, and our cognition and personality.
A. development
B. biopsychosocial approach
C. deterministic approach
D. behavior

d

Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:
A. self-actualization.
B. factor analysis.
C. free association.
D. reciprocal determinism.

a

You imaging the self you want to be—a great athlete, well loved, and well educated. You also imagine the self you fear becoming—a homeless person, lonely, and unemployed. These visions reflect the concept of:
A. possible selves.
B. reciprocal determinism.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. the self-serving bias.

b

When their self-esteem has been threatened, people with large egos may:
A. seek out explanations for their errors.
B. react violently.
C. be less likely to criticize others.
D. retreat.

d

Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of:
A. an external locus of control.
B. reciprocal determinism.
C. factor analysis.
D. unconscious processes.

a

When people are open with their own feelings, drop their facades, and are self-disclosing, they are displaying:
A. genuineness.
B. empathy.
C. unconditional positive regard.
D. altruism.

c

All of Ernest's basic physiological and safety needs have been met, and he feels a solid sense of belonging and of being loved. According to Maslow, this suggests that he will next seek to satisfy his need for:
A. catharsis.
B. self-actualization.
C. self-esteem.
D. unconditional positive regard.

a

A principal is looking for advice on how to improve his relationships with the teachers in his school. Carl Rogers might suggest which of the following?
A. Be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive regard.
B. Ask them if they have met all of their self-esteem and self-actualization needs.
C. Compliment them often even if the compliments are insincere.
D. Look at the way their behavior is influenced by environmental factors.

d

You are an expert witness for the defense results of the MMPI. Opposing counsel asks you if this is an objective instrument. You respond by saying:
A. "It works better on males than on females."
B. "According to a National Research Council report, the popularity of this test says it is."
C. "It works better on females than on males."
D. "Objectivity does not guarantee validity."

d

Personality inventories are to _______________ as projective tests are to _______________.
A. standardization; validity
B. subjective scoring; objective scoring
C. validity; standardization
D. objective scoring; subjective scoring

b

He proposed the social-cognitive perspective.
A. Freud
B. Bandura
C. Rogers
D. Maslow

b

Julie knows that only she can turn her life around and be responsible for those choices. Julie has a(n):
A. self-serving bias.
B. internal locus of control.
C. external locus of control.
D. sense of pessimism.

b

Defensive self-esteem is to _____________ as secure self-esteem is to _____________.
A. moisture; dryness
B. fragility; sturdiness
C. the Rorschach; the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
D. the self-serving bias; learned helplessness

b

According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:
A. hypnosis.
B. psychosexual development.
C. projective testing.
D. free association.

b

The _____________ perspective emphasizes the role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders.
A. trait
B. psychoanalytic
C. social-cognitive
D. humanistic

d

Bryce often acts overly confident and daring. Few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:
A. regression.
B. projection.
C. displacement.
D. reaction formation.

a

Darius's friends know him as someone who values people, regardless of their failings. When people spend time with Darius, they know he will have an attitude of total acceptance toward them. Carl Rogers refers to this attitude as:
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. counterconditioning.
C. companionate love.
D. confirmation bias.

a

Cliff is homeless, hungry, and desperate for food and shelter. He will do almost anything to satisfy these needs. According to Maslow's hierarchy, Cliff will ignore his other needs, which include:
A. Cliff will ignore all other needs until he satisfies his most basic needs for food and shelter.
B. his self-actualization needs
C. his need to be loved and to love himself
D. his self-esteem needs

d

Veda is sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate. She would likely score very high on a personality test that measures:
A. conscientiousness.
B. openness.
C. agreeableness.
D. extraversion.

c

Starke Hathaway is to _____________ as Alfred Binet is to _____________.
A. introversion; extraversion
B. intelligence; personality
C. personality measurement; intelligence measurement
D. Austria; France

a

Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends on luck and that it does not matter if she puts effort into her athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates:
A. an external locus of control.
B. the Barnum effect.
C. self-serving bias.
D. the spotlight effect.

a

People with an internal locus of control ____________ than do people with an external locus of control.
A. People with an internal locus of control experience all of these things.
B. feel less depressed
C. achieve more in school
D. enjoy better health

c

Psychology's concern with people's sense of self dates back at least to:
A. Carl Rogers.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. William James.
D. Gordon Allport.

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

David Napolitan and George Goethals

_________ and __________ had Williams College students talk to a woman and decide if she was friendly or unfriendly.

fundamental attribution error

the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

attitude

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

central route to persuasion

attitude-change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

peripheral route to persuasion

attitude-change paths in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

foot in the door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request

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