Euro CH 16

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Versailles

the greatest palace of the greatest king of the greatest state in seventeenth century Europe; built for Louis XIV in France; acted as a mask to hide the wrinkles of the royal state; became the envy of the Continent;

Sir Anthony Van Dyck

Flemish painter who created powerful images of three generations of Stuart kings of England; court painter to Charles I, whose qualities he portrayed with great sympathy and some exaggeration

Diego Velázquez

court painter to Philip IV of Spain; series of equestrian portraits of the Habsburgs exude the spirit of the seventeenth century monarchy- the grandeur and pomp, the power and self assurance

Peter Paul Rubens

represented twenty one separate episodes in the life of Marie de Médicis, queen regent of France

On the Excellence of the Kings and the Kingdom of France

one of the most popular French histories of the period

Francis Bacon

remembered as a philosopher and scientist; wrote a praising history of Henry VII, founder of the Tudor Dynasty

Ben Johnson

was a bricklayer; fought against the Spanish in Flanders; turned to acting and writing; wrote and staged masques, dance, pantomime, and acting; his masques were distinguished by their lavish productions and exotic costumes and inventive sets by Inigo Jones; frequently staged at Christmastime and starred members of the court as players

masque

light entertainment that included music; a kind of theatrical entertainment popular with the English aristocracy in the late 16th and early 17th century including songs

William Shakespeare

from ordinary family; little education; actor and producer; began to write and direct his plays; his company, the King's Players, received royal patronage; set many plays at the courts of princes; comedies centered on the power of the ruler to dispense justice and bring peace to his subjects (Tempest, Measure for Measure); history plays focused on the character of kings; his tragedies showed that a tragic flaw in the personality of rulers exposed the world around them to ruin (Macbeth, Hamlet); plays viewed by all social classes

The True Law of Free Monarchies

written by James VI of Scotland and later James I of England; reasoned that God had placed kings on earth to rule and that he would judge them in heaven for their transgressions

Jean Bodin

called the king "God's image on earth"; wrote The Six Books of the Commonwealth, where he defined the essence of the monarch's power

kings

bound by law of nature and the law of nations; they could not deprive their subjects of their lives, their liberties, or their property without due cause established by the law

Louis de Rouvroy

duc de Saint-Simon; spent much of his career at the court of Louis XIV; his Memoires provide a study of life at Versailles, as well as poison pen portraits of the king and his courtiers

favorite

this type of role combined varying proportions of best friend, right-hand man, and hired gun; they could retain their balance only as long as they retained their influence with the monarch

Cardinal Richelieu

born into a French noble family of minor importance; younger son- his family bought him a position in the Church; given a court post through the patronage of Queen Marie de Medicis; favored by King Louis XIII; became a duke and amassed the largest private fortune in France; never felt like his position was secure; saw clearly that the prosperity and survival of France depended upon strengthening royal power; raison d'état; three threats to stable gov- Huguenots, nobles, powerful governors

Count- Duke Olivares

a younger son of a lesser branch of a great Spanish noble family; a courtier with a title, large fortune, and (unusually) a university education by age twenty; favorite of King Philip IV; elevated to the highest rank of nobility; objective was to maintain the greatness of Spain; tried to further the process of centralizing royal power; his plans for a nationally recruited and financed army ended in disaster; his efforts at tax reform went unrewarded; advocated the aggressive foreign policy that mired Spain in the Thirty Years' War and eighty years of war in the Netherlands; removed from; died physically exhausted and mentally deranged

George Villiers, duke of Buckingham

a younger son; received education of a country gentleman- several years in France learning the graces of fashion and dancing; supposedly handsome-(the dude wearing heels and tights and too much makeup); his looks and charm brought him to the attention of Queen Anne, James' I wife; in seven years went from commoner to duke; political power- large number of royal offices, among them Admiral of the Navy; began a reform of naval administration; lots of enemies, esp after James died; became favorite of Charles I; assassinated by a discontented naval officer, Charles wept at his death

duke

the highest rank of the English nobility

letrados

university trained lawyers in Spain; normally members of the nobility; the backbone of royal government

justices of the peace

agents of the English Crown in their own localities; given power to hear and settle minor cases and to imprison those who had committed serious offenses until the assizes

assizes

the semiannual sessions of the county court in England; royal authority was displayed in a great procession to the courthouse that was led by the judge and the county justices, followed by the grand and petty juries of local citizens who would hear the cases, and finally by the carts carrying the prisoners to trial; occasions for edifying sermons, typically on the theme of obedience; their solemnity (black robes of the judge, Latin of the large proceedings, and public executions) all served to instill a sense of the power of the state in the thongs of ordinary people who witness them

provincial governors

in France, these were traditionally members of the ancient nobility who enjoyed wide powers in matters of military recruitment, revenue collection and judicial administration; many of them spent more time in Paris than in the locality that they were to administer and often opposed the exactions demanded by the monarch- this led to the use of intendants

intendants

the French monarchy began to rely on these new central officials to perform many of the tasks of the provincial governors; Richelieu expanded the use of them and they became a vital part of royal government; the eyes and ears of the crown, and Richelieu; spies assigned to different positions in different parts of the country and would report to Richelieu if there were any problems

Lords Lieutenant

because England had no national army, every English county was required to raise, equip, and train its own militia; these were in charge of the trained bands; chosen from the greatest nobles of the realm; delegated their work to members of the gentry, who took on their tasks as a matter of prestige rather than profit

Union of Arms

the program of Count Olivares of Spain that aimed for all the separate regions of the empire to contribute to the army during wars in the Netherlands and in Germany; envisioned an army of 140,000 but soon lowered his sights; not all of the Iberian provinces were persuaded to contribute but Olivares was able to establish at least the principle of unified cooperation

taille

in France; the crown's basic commodity tax

paulette

in France; a tax on officeholding; for 1/60th of the value of the office, this allowed the current holder to sell or bequeath the office as desired; instituted by Henry IV; became a vital source of royal revenue; many people complained about this; the more offices that could be created, the larger the income from this; amounted to one third of the crown's income in the early 1620s

milliones

in Spain; a tax on consumption; established by Philip II; important new source of internal taxation; regressive measure; taxed the sale of meat, wine and oil - the basic elements of diet; hit urban areas particularly hard; originally designed to last only six years, but instead it became a permanent tax

impositions

in England; customs duties; became a lucrative source of income when the judges ruled that the king could determine which commodities could be taxed and at what rate; fell heavily upon the merchant classes and urban consumers; placed on luxury import goods rather than on basic commodities

Ship Money

in England; a tax on each port town to hire a merchant ship and fit it out for war; Charles I revived this in the 1630s and extended it to all English localities

theory of resistance

first developed in the French wars of religion; came to be applied to political tyranny; posed a direct challenge to the idea of the divine right of kings

Nu-Pieds

the bare-footed; rose against changes in the salt tax in France

Midland Revolt of 1607

one of the largest rural protests in England; centered on opposition to the enclosure of grain fields and their conversion to pasture

Palermo

Sicilian city occupied by the Spanish; under the pressure of a disastrous harvest, rising food prices, and relentless taxation; imported nearly all of its foodstuffs; as grain prices rose, the city government subsidized the price of bread, running up huge debts in the process; when the town governors could no longer afford the subsidies, they decided to reduce the size of the loaf rather than increase its price; women rioted; "Long live the king and down with taxes"- rebel slogan; commoners not part of the urban power structure led the revolt; for a time, they achieved the abolition of Spanish taxes on basic foodstuffs; their success provided the model for a similar uprising in Naples; could not attract support from the local governors or the nobility so was eventually crushed

Neapolitan revolt

began after the Spanish placed a tax on fruit; a crowd gathered to protest the new imposition, burned the customs house, and murdered several local officials; led by a fisherman then by a blacksmith; achieved temporary suspension of Spanish taxation; could not attract support from the local governors or the nobility so was eventually crushed

Philippe Duplessis-Mornay

wrote A Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants; argued that the king who violated the law of the land could also be resisted

Juan de Mariana

wrote The King and the Education of the King; a Jesuit Professor; described how human government developed from the need of individuals to have leaders act for their convenience and well being; said the magistrates were established by the people and then legitimated by God; specified that only the most willful and deliberate lawbreakers were actually tyrants; advocated the use of national assemblies rather than individual assassins to make the decision to punish them

John Milton

English poet; defended the English Revolution; built upon the traditional resistance theory as it had developed over the previous fifty years; wrote The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates; expanded upon the conventional idea that society was formed by a covenant between the ruler and king; failure by either side to meet obligations broke the covenant

Catalonia

the easternmost province of Spain; rich Mediterranean city of Barcelona; consistently rebuffed Olivares's attempts to consolidate the Spanish provinces; relied on its ancient laws to fend off demands for contributions to the Spanish military effort; became embroiled in the French war, and Olivares was forced to bring in troops; the presence of the soldiers and their conduct inflamed the local population; unconnected series of peasant uprisings; soldiers and royal officials slain, Spanish viceroy of the province murdered; attacks on wealthy citizens raised the specter of social revolt; leaders of Barcelona lead the rebellion- declared that Philip IV violated the fundamental laws of this province and as a consequence their allegiance to the crown was dissolved; turned to Louis XIII of France, offering him sovereignty if he would preserve their liberties; French occupied it; Spanish took Barcelona, both rebels and rulers exhausted

Catalonian Cortes

the representative institution of the towns; refused to make any contributions to the Union of Arms or to successive appeals for emergency tax increases; leaders feared that the demands wouldn't stop, like in Castile

Fronde

an aristocratic rebellion in France; direct challenge to the underlying authority of the state; began in response to fiscal crises brought on by war; rebellion against the regency government of Louis XIV; officeholders, Parisian landowners and nobility united against Anne + Mazarin because of the new taxes they initiated; led by the Parlement of Paris; when the Parlement refused to register a number of new taxes proposed by the government and insisted on the right to control the crown's financial policy, Anne + Mazarin arrested a number of their leading members; took its name from the slingshots that children used to hurl stones at carriages; aimed at the king's advisers; demanded Mazarin's resignation, the removal of the new taxes and greater participation in government by nobles and Parlement; Mazarin forced to make concessions in order to prevent a Spanish invasion of France because the duc de Conde courted Spanish aid; the leaders agreed that the crown must overhaul its finances and recognize the rights of the administrative nobility to participate in formulating royal policy, but they had no concrete proposals to accomplish either aim; could not control the deteriorating political situation in Paris; Louis XIV was declared old enough to rule- his forces recaptured Paris; demostrated that the French aristocracy remaind an independent force in politics

Anne of Austria

mother of Louis XIV; ruled as regent of France with the help of her Italian advisor, Cardinal Mazarin

Cardinal Mazarin

adviser to Anne of Austria; helped Anne rule while she was Louis XIV's regent; initiated new taxes on officeholders, Parisian landowners, and nobility; in power during the Fronde; forced to make concessions in order to prevent a Spanish invasion of France because the duc de Conde courted Spanish aid during the Fronde; Richelieu's successor as chief minister; more ruthless and less popular than Richelieu; an Italian from a modest background, won the money to launch his career at the gaming table; good fortune seemed to follow him everywhere; died with the largest private fortune that had ever been accumulated by a French citizen; an excellent administrator who had learned well the lessons of raison d'etat; refused to make peace with Spain at the end of the Thirty Years' War, believing that it was the time to deliver a knockout blow to the Spanish Habsburgs

Louis XIV

four years old when he inherited the French throne; his accession to the throne ended the Fronde; during the Fronde he was forced to flee the capital, endure the penury of exile, and suffer the humiliation of being bossed about by the rebels; Mazarin was his advisor; began to rule after Mazarin's death; money and might- the two central props of his state- in the hands of Colbert and Louvois; furthered the practice of relying on professional administrators to supervise the main departments of state and offer advice on matters of policy; separation between courtiers and officeholders + largely excluded the nobility of the sword from the inner circles of gov; councils connected to central advisory body of gov, the secret council of the king; in each department ministers furthered process- led to advancement of talented clerks, secretaries, administrators; intendants a permanent part of government; required attendance of nobles at his court; system of court etiquette so complex that constant study was needed to prevent humiliation; during his reign France replaced Spain as the greatest nation in Europe; French culture on the rise; French became the universal tongue; absolute monarch; his aggressive foreign policy ultimately bankrupted the crown; allowed the persecution of Protestants, despite the protection under the Edict of Nantes; revoked Edict, all forms of Protestant worship outlawed, ministers killed + exiled; over 200,000 Huguenots fled the country with irreplaceable skills to Holland, England, and Brandenburg- stiffened resolve against Louis, Huguenots remained firm + went underground; known as the Sun King

Parlement of Paris

the highest court in the land, in which new decrees of taxation had to be registered; when it refused to register a number of new taxes proposed by the new government and soon insisted on the right to control the crown's financial policy, Anne and Mazarin arrested a number of its leading members

James I

succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I as King of England; two great faults- he succeeded a legend, and he was Scottish; first of the Stuart kings; knighted thousands of gentlemen; promoted peers and created new titles to meet the demands of decades of stinginess; favorable until he gave higher positions to Scottish nobility; King of Scotland, then converted to Anglican church; sponsored the translation of the Bible which became named after him; requested that a Catholic priest come to his deathbed to administer his last rights; dies as a Catholic

Petition of Right

restated the traditional English freedoms from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment (habeas corpus), non-parliamentary taxation, and the confiscation of property by martial law; instituted by Charles I

Estates General

the advisory body to the King of France; only meets when there are problems; meets in 1614 under Richelieu; not called again until 1789 because Richelieu sets up a good system

clergymen

the first estate in France

nobility

the second estate in France

merchants

the third estate in France

Bill Clinton

selected one hundred members of his campaign to his inauguration and a breakfast; talked to each person, and knew all of their names; present day example of Richelieu

Louis XV

a French king who was not hardworking and somewhat dumb; Richelieu's system sustained itself; during the end of his reign he said that things won't fall apart until after he is dead so he didn't care

velvet glove

attractive and luxurious; Louis XIV gave people this treatment to make them feel good and important; covers the iron fist - first the king tries to flatter you with this, and if you don't change your mind then the king forces you to with the iron fist

iron fist

what you say goes; absolute monarchs have this type of power

mercantilism (Bullionism)

economic idea that people in Europe believed; belief that the country with the most gold + silver is the richest and can create the largest army + navy; acquiring more colonies makes you richer; the more gold + silver you have, the less your rivals have

Trade Surplus

the value of your exports is greater than the value of your imports; get paid with gold + silver; a favorable balance of trade

Trade Deficit

the value of your imports is greater than the value of your exports; give up gold + silver; an unfavorable balance of trade

United States

has the largest economy in the world, more than twice the size of China's; has the largest trade deficit in the world

Florida

1/3 of all the homeless families in America live here; 2/3 of the homeless people that live here live in cars; 3rd highest state with underwater houses - 45% are underwater

underwater house

term for when the mortgage is greater than the present value of your house; after the housing bubble burst in 2006, this became a big issue in the US; 23% of houses in the US are in this situation; Nevada has the highest amount- 60%

USS Arizona

American battle ship sunk at Pearl Harbor; over 1000 crew members died; floating memorial

Mattel Toy Company

this company had its headquarters in CA, then moved to Mexico where the price of labor is much lower

puritans

work to purify the church of England and make it Calvinist

Noncomformists

faction of Puritans that did not leave England and instead decided to fight against King James for their rights; mostly townsmen

separatists

don't feel comfortable with King James because he seems to be Catholic; decide to leave England because they don't want to be forced to convert

pilgrims

famous group of separatists; go to the Netherlands for the Dutch Reformed Church; their children begin taking on Dutch customs, so they leave and come to America in 1619; still Calvinist; open churches known as Congregational Churches

King James Bible

the common bible today; a new translation of the bible; combined the Geneva version (from Calvin,had good wording, but a tone of dislike towards the monarchy) and the Bishops' bible (was hard to understand, but had no tone of royal dislike)

House of Lords

loyal to the monarchy

House of Commons

mostly townspeople

Power of the Purse

the House of Commons had this power to influence the monarchy with their powerful tax base and their control over the armies;when Charles I asks for extra revenues, they refuse unless he supports the Petition of Right

William Laud

Archbishop of Canterbury; moderate Calvinist; seems like he's trying to make England Catholic again; noncomformists start to leave England; introduces new prayer books for both England and Scotland; riots by citizens and resistance to the use of the new prayer book by clergy and the nobility; raised forces to suppress it; Scottish soldiers more determined to preserve their religious practice than were English soldiers to impose the king's- Scotland invaded England; levied fines for unheard of offenses, expanded traditional taxes, and added a brutal efficiency to the collection of revenue; had to summon Parliament

Great Puritan Migration

when Laud enforces new church reforms that make the Anglican Church more Catholic, many nonconformist Puritans leave England; they move to the Pilgrim area at Plymouth, outnumber the pilgrims, and take control of New England; some take control of the Sugar Islands

popery

term for Catholicism

Long Parliament

Charles I reluctantly summoned this in 1640 it; sat for 13 years; saw little urgency in levying taxes to repel the Scottish because they were resisting Laud's religious innovations, which many English believed should be resisted; proposed a number of constitutional reforms that Charles I reluctantly accepted because he needed money; would not be dismissed without its own consent; decided that parliaments would be summoned once every three years, due process in common law would be observed, ancient taxes that the crown had revived would be abolished; tried and executed the Earl of Strafford and imprisoned Archbishop Laud; sought to negotiate with the Scots themselves and to continue to demand concessions from the king as long as the Scottish threat remained; Charles I called the leaders of this traitors and rebels-tried to arrest them; tried to work with Charles I but he was very stubborn

Earl of Strafford

Charles I's political advisor; tried and executed by the Long Parliament

Roundheads (Parliamentarians)

believed that they were fighting to defend their religion, their liberties, and the rule of law; supported House of Commons; force Charles I to surrender; leaders were Cromwell and Fairfax

Cavaliers (Royalists)

believed they were fighting to defend their monarch, their church, and social stability; supported the House of Lords

Naseby

battle where Parliament won a decisive victory and brought the English civil war to an end the following summer; bishops abolished, a Presbyterian church established and limitations placed on royal power; the king did not agree to the judgment of battle

Independents

desired a more decentralized church; the Scots and the English Presbyterians in Parliament feared that the religious settlement already made would be sacrificed by this group; they feared that they would be persecuted

Rump Parliament

voted to bring the king to trial for his crimes against the liberties of his subjects; Charles I was executed and England was declared a commonwealth; the monarchy and the House of Lords were abolished; the nation was to be governed by what was left of the House of Commons

Oliver Cromwell

with the support of the army's senior officers, he forcibly dissolved the Rump Parliament and became the leader of the revolutionary government; when his handpicked Parliament proved no better than the Rump, a written constitution, The Instrument of Government, established a new polity; titled Lord protecter, and was now to rule along with a freely elected Parliament and an administrative body, the Council of State; devout Puritan; believed his own actions were divinely ordained

Richard

the eldest son of Oliver Cromwell; succeeded Oliver as Lord Protector but had very little experience in military or civil affairs; the revolution fell apart during his first year of reign; didn't have the sense of purpose that was his father's greatest strength

Charles II

restored the Stuart line of kings after the period of interregnum

James II

a declared Catholic; attempted to use his power of appointment to foil the constraints that Parliament imposed on him; elevated Catholics to leading posts in the military and in the central government; began campaign to pack a new Parliament with his supporters; the governing classes entered into negotiations with Mary Stuart, his eldest daughter; William +Mary landed in England with a small force-he fled to France and the throne declared vacant

Glorious Revolution

also known as the Bloodless Revolution; William and Mary Stuart were declared monarchs of England after invading and causing James II to flee; there was little bloodshed in England and little threat of social disorder; helped create a constitutional balance between ruler and ruled

Declaration of Rights

the achievements of the Glorious Revolution were set down; (1689) presented to William and Mary before they took the throne; reasserted the fundamental principles of constitutional monarchy as they had developed over the previous half century; security of property and the regularity of Parliaments were guaranteed

Toleration Act

granted religious freedom to nearly all groups of Protestants in England (except Anabaptists); (1689) the liberties of the subject and the rights of the sovereign were to be in balance

John Locke

the theorist of the Revolution of 1689; in his Two Treatise on Civil Government, he developed the contract theory of government; there is a contract between rulers and subjects- an agreement for the protection of natural rights- life, liberty, property; when rulers ignored the natural rights, they were to be deposed by their subjects, preferably peacefully

constitutional monarchy

power is shared between the ruler and a representative assembly of subjects; England- Parliament, Holland- town oligarchies, Sweden- nobility; requires a higher level of political participation of citizens- greater freedom of expression, greater toleration of rights, greater openness in institutions of gov

Thomas Hobbes

one of many Englishmen who went into exile in France during the English civil wars; in Leviathan, he argued that before civil society was formed, humans lived in a savage state of nature; people came together to form a gov for the most basic of all purposes- self preservation; rulers agreed to rule, subjects agreed to obey;

absolutism

an expression of control rather than of power; designed to extend royal control; as the king grew in stature, his competitors for power all shrank; representative institutions were weakened/cast aside; military expanded and made an integral part of the machinery of government; success depended upon a strong monarch and unity within the state and the absence or ruthless suppression of religious or political minorities; ruler needed to control information and ideas to limit criticism of state policy

L'état, c'est moi

"I am the State"- Louis XIV of France; an absolute ruler

Frederick William

the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia; one of the European princes who made the most effective us of the techniques of absolutism; 1640 inherited a scattered and ungovernable collection of territories that had been devastated by the Thirty Years' War; as a child, he hid in the woods to escape the bands of marauding soldiers, later followed Gustavus Adolphus; stayed in Holland during the final stages of the Dutch Revolt- learned importance of a strong army and a strong base of revenue to support it; admired and wished to emulate Gustavus Adolphus; established the excise; created strong Prussian army; organized one of the first departments of war to oversee all of the details of the creation of his army, from housing and supplies to the training of young officer candidates, and collection of taxes; by integrating military and civilian government, he was able to create an efficient state bureaucracy that was particularly responsive in times of crisis

excise

a commodity tax on consumption; Frederick William's initial attempt was rebuffed, but military emergency overcame legal precedents; established in the towns, though not on the land

the Junker

the nobility in Brandenburg-Prussia; enjoyed immunity from almost all forms of direct taxation and the towns had no obligation to furnish men or supplies for military operations beyond their walls

Peter I The Great

Romanov tsar; visited the West- said he wanted to build an alliance against the Turks, but actually wanted to learn as much as he could about Western military technology; introduced new agricultural products such as wine and potatoes to his subjects; campaigned to westernize Russia; forced nobles to cut off their beards and practiced dentistry on his subjects; his greatest reforms were in the military; realized that if Russia were to flourish in a world dominated by war and commerce it would have to reestablish its hold on the Baltic ports - meant dislodging the Swedes from the Russian mainland and creating a fleet to protect Russian trade; studied every Sweden campaign; initial wars against the Swedes ended in defeat; introduced a system of conscription that resulted in the creating of a standing army; unified the military command at the top and stratified it in the field; promotion based on merit; Russian officers given particular responsibilities to fulfill during training and battle; created military schools to train cadets for the next generation of officers; absolute monarch; secularized the Russian Orthodox Church; broke the old military service class, which attempted a coup d'état when he was abroad; defeated Swedes at Battle of Poltava; made the official Russian court language French

Poltava

at this battle the Russian army routed the Swedes, wounding King Charles XII, annihilating his infantry, and capturing dozens of his leading officers; Russia started to replace Sweden as the dominant power in the Baltic

Louis XIII

came to French throne at eight years old; his favorite was Cardinal Richelieu; hated business of government and neglected his principal responsibility of providing the state with an heir; he and his wife, Anne of Austria, slept in separate palaces- a freak rainstorm forced them to spend a night together- Louis XIV conceived;

raison d'état

reason of state; Richelieu's doctrine in which he placed the needs of the nation above the privileges of its most important groups;

nobility of the sword

the ancient aristocracy; believed themselves to be in a particularly vulnerable position in France; their traditional roles were becoming obsolete; professional soldiers replaced them at war, professional administrators at government; mercantile wealth threatened their economic superiority; not likely to take orders from Richelieu, especially when he attacked one of the great symbols of their power, the duel; Louis XIV excluded them from the inner circles of government

nobility of the robe

members of the Parlement of Paris and of the expanding provincial parlements; wore long gowns; lawyers and state officials

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Louis XIV's chief minister for finance credited for building the French navy, reform of French legal codes, and establishment of national academies of culture; his fiscal reforms were so successful that in less than six years a debt of 22 million French pounds became a surplus of 29 million; increased the efficiency of the collection of taxes rather than raising them

Marquis de Louvois

Louis XIV's chief minister of war; reformed the French army; introduced new ranks for the field officers who actually led their men into battle; promotions distributed by merit; established store houses of arms and ammunition throughout the realm

France

under Louis XIV, this nation became the richest and most populous European state, replacing Spain as the great nation in Europe; became a commercial power rivaling the Netherlands, a naval power rivaling England, and a military power without peer; absolute monarchy

divine right of kings

states that the only person above a king is god

french

the international language of diplomacy

hall of mirrors

most famous room in Versailles; one side has windows, the other side has mirrors; chandeliers lit with candles

purple

the color of royalty; Venetians had a rare snail that made the dye

Virginia

Cavalier's state; Anglican; named after Queen Elizabeth

Maryland

Catholics come here; established under Lord Baltimore; don't tolerate Jews

Interregnum

the time between two kings; the Commonwealth in England; between Charles I and Charles II

Lord Protector

Cromwell's title of the Commonwealth; tries to enforce a Calvinist state; dress in plain dark colors, black hat, dark dresses with high neckline, low hem; prohibitions against public displays of affection

Instrument of Government

established by the Rump Parliament; eliminates the House of Lords

limited monarchy

the monarch has power, but not absolute power

conscription

draft into army

Ural mountains

the boundary between Europe and Asia

Louis XVI

called the Estates General in 1789 because France was bankrupt from assisting the American revolution

Presbyterians

feared that the religious settlement already made in England would be sacrificed by the Independents; when this group rose up against the army's show of force in parliament, troops occupied the city- civil war

My dear brother

Greeting that monarchs throughout Europe would start letters to each other with

My dear cousin

Greeting that monarchs throughout Europe addressed Peter I with; condescending

Sun King

What Louis XIV called himself; brighter than everything and center; larger than life

Patriarcha

written by Sir Robert Filmer; one of the clearest statements of the divine origins of monarchy in human society; believed that Adam, the first father, was monarch of the universe and that his children owed him absolute obedience

Judge Bradshaw

responsible for the ruling to execute King Charles I

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