Life-Span Development Multiple Choice Questions

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All multiple choice questions given in lecture

a. immortality

In Erik Erikson's theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of _____.
a. immortality
b. recognition
c. achievement
d. omniscience

d. stagnation

As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of _____.
a. social rejection
b. apathy
c. generativity
d. stagnation

b. being attractive versus being unattractive

According to Levinson, the changes to middle-adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts?
a. being young versus being old
b. being attractive versus being unattractive
c. being masculine versus being feminine
d. being destructive versus being constructive

b. a daily hassle.

Mr. Chang gets very angry when he discovers his newspaper in the mud underneath the bushes once again. He begins throwing things and yelling loudly. Mr. Chang is experiencing the stress of:
a. a major life event.
b. a daily hassle.
c. a middle-age development crisis.
d. psychological generativity.

c. concerns about weight

Which of the following is a daily hassle for adults in middle age?
a. concerns about being lonely
b. concerns about meeting high standards
c. concerns about weight
d. wasting time

c. It varies more now.

What changes in the social clock has taken place in recent years?
a. It is much more rigid now than in the past.
b. Males are much more likely to follow it.
c. It varies more now.
d. It is much less important than cohorts' effects in understanding behavior

a. have different social clocks.

Sandra's mother is concerned about Sandra's lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Sandra and her mother:
a. have different social clocks.
b. have different coping styles.
c. have different burnout levels.
d. are in different developmental stages.

c. engage in mutual activities.

Middle-age partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they:
a. have a satisfying sexual relationship.
b. have financial security.
c. engage in mutual activities.
d. are religious.

d. For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.

Which of the following is TRUE about the empty nest syndrome?
a. Parents who live vicariously with their children do not experience it.
b. It is more common for middle-aged men than for middle-aged women.
c. It is a common, though minor, problem for most middle-aged adults.
d. For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.

b. chronic

A disease that starts out slowly but lasts a long time is called _____.

a. acute
b. chronic
c. terminal
d. pervasive

a. an increase in illness and disease

Which of the following is usually considered the reason for the decline in alcohol intake of 65-year-olds?

a. an increase in illness and disease
b. expert elder care in nursing homes
c. improved education about health and fitness
d. alternate programs for de-addiction

b. health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease.

Substance abuse often goes undetected in older adults because:
a. older adults know how to disguise it.
b. health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease.
c. caregivers do not report symptoms.
d. their symptoms are different than for younger adults.

c. Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.

Your 90-year-old uncle complains that he cannot get around the way he used to. He has trouble getting up out of chairs and difficulty walking across the room when he does get up. Can you help him?
a. Yes, you could have him take estrogen to improve his bone structure.
b. No, this sort of physical decline is irreversible.
c. Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.
d. No, physical exercise only tends to make the physical declines of old age worse.

a. selective

Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because _____ attention declines as one ages.

a. selective
b. divided
c. focused
d. sustained

b. Aging of the brain's prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory.

Which of the following statements about cognitive functioning is NOT true?
a. Cognitive interventions may increase these neural connections.
b. Aging of the brain's prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory.
c. Changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain.
d. Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning.

c. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire.

Which of the following statements about retirement is TRUE?

a. Men spend less time planning for retirement than women do.
b. Older adults with a long work history adjust to retirement more easily than those who have been in the workforce for a shorter period of time.
c. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire.
d. People who consider just the financial aspect of being retired do better than those who consider other areas of their lives as well.

a. It is often left untreated.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning depression in older adults?

a. It is often left untreated.
b. It is a very common though temporary problem.
c. It is a very rare problem.
d. It is usually diagnosed and treated.

c. 25 percent

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older?

a. less than 2 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 25 percent
d. 40 percent

c. 5.3 million

In 2009, an estimated _____ adults in the United States had Alzheimer disease.

a. 1 million
b. 2.6 million
c. 5.3 million
d. 8.5 million

c. depression.

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha. According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing:
a. an ulcer.
b. migraine headaches.
c. depression.
d. obsessions.

b. integrity versus despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

a. death versus dying
b. integrity versus despair
c. immortality versus death
d. independence versus dependence

a. despair

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood.

a. despair
b. inferiority
c. shame and doubt
d. identity diffusion

c. wisdom

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____.

a. care
b. fidelity
c. wisdom
d. hope

c. integrity

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____.

a. identity
b. intimacy
c. integrity
d. autonomy

a. life review.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

a. life review.
b. identity resolution.
c. integrity formation.
d. retrospective spirit.

a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.

Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true?

a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.
b. Life reviews can include sociocultural dimensions.
c. Life reviews lead to revision or expanded understanding of experiences.
d. Life reviews include interpersonal, relationship dimensions.

b. socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

a. activity theory
b. socioemotional selectivity theory
c. social discontinuity theory
d. disengagement theory

a. socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?

a. socioemotional selectivity theory
b. activity theory
c. disengagement theory
d. social breakdown theory

d. knowledge-related.

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and:

a. spiritual.
b. practical.
c. relational.
d. knowledge-related.

d. activity theory.

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

a. disengagement theory.
b. socioemotional selectivity theory.
c. evangelical theory.
d. activity theory.

c. selection, optimization, and compensation.

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

a. assortment, enhancement, and remuneration.
b. reorganization, compensation, and optimization.
c. selection, optimization, and compensation.
d. remuneration, selection, and enhancement.

a. selection

The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect?
a. selection
b. organization
c. optimization
d. compensation

b. ageism.

Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of:

a. eldercare.
b. ageism.
c. generational inequity.
d. age incongruity.

a. ageism.

Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All his applications have been turned down, however, even though Don has many years' experience, has an excellent work record, and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing:

a. ageism.
b. disengagement.
c. generational inequity.
d. eldercare discrimination.

c. disrespect for older adults

Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism?

a. assumptions about frailty of older adults
b. assumptions about ailments caused by age
c. disrespect for older adults
d. older adults being edged out of their family life

a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years.

Which of the following statements about the health care of older adults in the U.S. is NOT true?

a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years.
b. Medicare pays for some of the health care costs for people over age 65.
c. Older adults themselves pay about one-third of their total health care costs.
d. United States is the only industrialized nation that provides health insurance specifically for older adults.

c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.

Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system?

a. Medicare does not have special provisions for chronic illnesses.
b. Costs of prescription drugs are still not subsidized for the elderly.
c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.
d. Home-visits are not emphasized over hospital stays.

c. eldercare

Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing _____ for her aunt.

a. home care service
b. emergency care
c. eldercare
d. hospice

b. generational inequity

The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people.

a. eldercare
b. generational inequity
c. ageism
d. age-incongruity

a. 9.6%

According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____.

a. 9.6%
b. 12.5%
c. 23.3%
d. 24.0%

a. 11.5%

According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty?

a. 11.5%
b. 18.4%
c. 22.7%
d. 44%

d. 60%

What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty?

a. 30%
b. 40%
c. 50%
d. 60%

c. 50%

What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty?

a. 30%
b. 40%
c. 50%
d. 60%

a. Fifty

_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone.

a. Fifty
b. Fifty-five
c. Seventy
d. Seventy-five

b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members.

After losing her husband, Ebony does not want to move into her daughter's home. "I want to be like most other people my age," she said. "Put me in a nursing home or just let me live alone in my own home." Statistics show that Ebony is:

a. right; most elderly adults live in nursing homes or alone in their homes.
b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members.
c. partly wrong; most elderly adults continue to live in their own homes when they lose their spouses.
d. wrong; most elderly adults live in a community group arrangement rather than with family or in a nursing home.

b. communicate with relatives.

Older adults use the Internet most often to:

a. buy products online.
b. communicate with relatives.
c. meet a potential mate.
d. take up further education.

d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

Sarah and Kent have always been a very traditional couple, in that he has worked outside the home, and she has been a homemaker. When Kent retires, which of the following situations is MOST likely to arise?

a. Sarah will have difficulty keeping up with housework.
b. Sarah will help more with yard work.
c. Sarah will be delighted to have someone help her, so she can spend increasing amounts of time away from home.
d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

c. 3%

Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together") (not married).

a. 4%
b. 1%
c. 3%
d. 10%

a. her daughter

Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder?

a. her daughter
b. her sister
c. her son
d. her daughter-in-law

b. ambivalence

In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____.

a. anger
b. ambivalence
c. apathy
d. abuse

d. disease.

Social support is negatively correlated with:

a. happiness.
b. socioeconomic status.
c. longevity.
d. disease.

d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is NOT true?

a. Social support for older adults may vary across cultures.
b. Friends play a vital role in social support.
c. Married people need less formal social support than single people.
d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?

a. Younger adults tend to perceive time differently, influencing their definition of loneliness.
b. Most of the older adults are in community homes; thus reducing loneliness.
c. Most of the older adults tend to re-employ themselves thus reducing loneliness.
d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?

a. whether older people control key community resources
b. whether the extended family is a common family arrangement
c. whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions
d. whether older people have had a large number of children

c. collectivistic; individualistic

It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures.

a. socialistic; capitalistic
b. spiritualistic; competitive
c. collectivistic; individualistic
d. religious; materialistic

c. pessimism; optimistic

Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____.

a. empathy; sympathetic
b. materialism; spiritualist
c. pessimism; optimistic
d. generosity; frugal

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