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digestion/absorption

cephalic response

where/when does digestion begin

epiglottis

what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow

portal vein

which large vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutritents, transporting them to the liver

liver

blood leaving the intestine goes by way of a vein to the

lymphatic

after digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat soluble vitamins

it picks up and transports dietary lipids

which of the following is a feature of the lympatic system

it is important for transporting fat soluble nutrients

which of the following is true about the lymphatic system

is the first GI tract sphincter

all the following are features of the epiglottis except it

small intestine

most digestion takes place in the

sphincters

the ring like muscles that retard or prevent backflow or partially digested food in the gastrointestinal tract are called

controls passage of food through the GI tract

which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles

ileocecal

waht sphincter separates the small intestine from the large intestine

prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach

what is the function of the pyloric sphincter

pyloric sphincter

the stomach empties into the small intestine through the

duodenal

which of the following is not a sphincter

a watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines

which of the following is a description of chyme

protects gastrointestinal cells from gastric juices

what is the function o mucus in the stomach

bile

what substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes

pancreas and small intestine

where are the most digestive enzymes produced

proteins

which of the following, upon digestion, is not normally released directly into the blood stream

liver

which of the following body organs produces bile

muscular movement of materials through the GI tract

peristalsis refers to

top of the esophagus

where does peristalsis begin

lungs

which of the following is not considered part of the GI tract

mucin

saliva, secreted by special glands int he mouth, contains

95

what percent of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine

root beer

all of the following can weaken esophageal sphincer tension and promote heartburn except

enzymes

these protein based substances enhance digestion by making chemical reactions more likely to happen

enzymes that work in the acidic environment of the stomach cannout work in the basic or alkaline environment of the small intestine and vice versa

which of the following is true about digestive enzymes

an ulcer

excessive acid production in the stomach or upper small intestine could result in

sustained absorption

absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except

acidic

which pH best describes the environment of the stomach when stimulated

protect stomach cells from acid and enzymes

the function of this mucus in the stomach is to

bicarbonate

the hormone secretin responds to food entering the small intestine and stimulates the pancreas to release

chyme

partially digested food that enters the small intestine from the stomach is called

pancreatic juices

which of the following substances is primarily involved in the emulsification of fat to facilitate its digestion

it is produced by the liver

which of the following is true regarding bile

small intestine

the most active area for absorption of nutrients into the body is the

provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption

the villi of the small intestine

from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

in passive absorption, nutrients enter the cell

water soluble nutrients are transported through the portal system to the liver

which of the following is true of nutrient transport

water and minerals

a function of the large intestine is to absorb

eating dietary fiber, appropriate fluid intake, and engaging in physical exercise

constipation can best be prevented by

eating smaller meals that are lower in fat

which of the following is an important dietary recommendation for avoiding heartburn

carbohydrates

fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as

dietary fiber

which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not digested in the stomach or small intestine

sucrose

which of the following products of digestion are not normally released into the bloodstream

pancreatic amylase

what enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digesetion in the small intestine

mouth with salivary amylase

carbohydrate digestion begins in the

an enzyme that digests starch

amylase is

they pass into the colon and are fermented by bacteria

what is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intestine

starch to maltose to glucose

which of the following shows the process of starch digestion

active absorption

glucose is absorbed via

maltose is transported through the portal vein to the liver

which of the following is not true of carbohydrate absorption

lactose deficiency

lactose intolerance is caused by

gas, abdominal pain, and distention

the major symptoms of lactose intolerance are

liver

which organ will receive sugars after they absorbed in the blood

glycerol and fatty acids

when triglycerides are digested, before being absorbed, they are converted to a mixture of

are reformed into triglycerides

after absorption, long-chain fatty acids and monoglyceride inside intestinal cells

pancreatic lipase

the major fat digesting enzyme is

fatty acids of less than 12 carbons eneter the blood and then the liver via the portal vein

which of hte following is true about the fate of fatty acids after their absorption

lipoproteins

to be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called

lymphatic

after chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system

carbohydrate

lipoproteins contain the following components except

pepsin

what enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein

pepsin works best in an alkaline environment

which of the following is not true about pepsin

man whole proteins are absorbed and enter the blood

which of the following is not true about the events during and after absorption of protein digestive breakdown products

denaturation

cooking an egg alters its appearance due to

stomach and small intestine

proteins are chemically digested in which areas of the body

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