Nutrition Exam 5

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Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake.

True

Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading?

Improved Performance

In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?

Weightlifting

Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?

gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)

Lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of ________.

Galactose

A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________

morbid obesity

By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the ________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.

Hypothalamus

Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?

a 28-year-old overweight woman

All Legumes are complete proteins

False

A(n) ________ reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic

The human body cannot store glycogen during the first 24 hours of recovery from intense exercise.

False

The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited.

False

An RDA for phytochemicals has not been established.

True

Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?

the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin

Insouluble fiber consumption is associated with decreased

risk of diverticulosis

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Phytochemicals are nutrients necessary for sustaining health and life.

Due to the fermentation process alcoholic beverages are rich sources of dietary maltose.

False

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?

225 kilocalories

Saturated fats are ________

found in whole milk and beef.

The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.

Saturated

The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are ________.

Proteases

Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

antibodies

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

HCl inhibits the digestion of fat so it does not compete with protein digestion.

Recent research indicates ________ proteins, found in brown adipose tissue, appear to inhibit ATP formation and cause an increase loss of energy through body heat, thus making certain individuals are more resistant to weight gain and obesity.

Uncoupling

The human body CANNOT make cholesterol, thus it is an essential nutrient we must consume in our diet in moderation.

FALSE

The primary energy source used by the body at rest is ________.

Fat

Which of the following is a monosaccharide?

galactose

The richest dietary source of resistant starch is _______

Legumes

At rest, the body's fuel source is primarily

fat.

Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen?

Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman

Fatty-acid molecules provide much of the energy for

Long-term activity such as walking

Muscle tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10-15 minutes.

False

Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity.

True

Unless labeled as zero trans fatty acids, most margarines will have more trans fatty acids than butter.

True

The most common sterol in our diet is ________.

Cholesterol

The ________ effect of food refers to the energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store the nutrients we eat.

Thermic

Which nutrient requires the least amount of energy to digest, transport, and store?

fat

Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.

adipose

Basal functions include all of the following EXCEPT

walking up stairs.

A(n) ________ reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen.

anaerobic

As long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance.

False

Over secretion of the hormone leptin will result in weight gain.

False

How do phytochemicals reduce our risk for disease?

They reduced the risk of cancer

When consumed, a high glycemic-index food can cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels.

True

The reason that phytochemicals are found naturally in plant foods is to increase their nutrient content.

False

Research has found the strongest association between dietary fat intake and what type of cancer?

Prostate

Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?

adipose tissue

Excellent sources of protein, ________ include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas.

Legumes

In phenylketonuria (PKU), what amino acid becomes conditionally essential?

Tyrosine

The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ________

Mutual supplementation

The set-point theory suggests that our bodies are designed to maintain our weight within a ________ range.

narrow

Fat is digested more slowly than carbohydrate or protein.

true

The Institute of Medicine recommends a minimum of ________ minutes of physical activity each day for adults.

60

George plays basketball for his high school team and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?

He is losing weight

Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to

increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source

The majority of protein digestion occurs in the mouth

False

About 5 to ________ percent of our total energy output is attributable to the thermic effect of food.

10

A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________

morbid obesity.

Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.

Adipose

The ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is called the ________ system.

cardiorespiratory

The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.

Saturated

Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ________ intake is insufficient.

carbohydrate

Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins.

turnover

Which of the following statements is TRUE about trans fatty acids?

They are created during the hydrogenation process

Which of the following ingredients would alert you to the likely presence of trans fatty acids in a product?

partially hydrogenated vegetable oil

Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar.

False

How do phytochemicals reduce our risk for disease?

They reduced the risk of cancer.

After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?

insulin

Fructose is also known as

levulose

Warm-up exercises prepare the muscles for exertion by increasing blood flow and temperature.

True

Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages.

False

Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease.

True

Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes?

sickle cell anemia

Which of the following is NOT a major function of protein in the human body?

providing energy to the body

An RDA for phytochemicals has not been established.

True

Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism?

1,855 kcals

All of the following are examples of low carbohydrate, high protein diets EXCEPT

the DASH diet

Ghrelin is ________

a gastric protein that stimulates appetite.

Thirst is a relatively poor indicator of dehydration.

T

Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages.

F

In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?

weightlifting

Which of the following is FALSE concerning aerobic metabolism?

It leads to muscle fatigue

Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training.

The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ________

mutual supplementation

The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a ________

lacto-ovo vegetarian.

A ________ is a spherical compound made up of bile and phospholipids that prepares dietary fat for absorption.

micelle

Lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of ________.

galactose

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?

225

Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?

butter

Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen into its active form pepsin.

T

An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.

composition

During transcription, ________ copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis. (Write your answer as an abbreviation in lower and upper case letters.)

mRNA

An RDA for phytochemicals has not been established.

T

Lipids can be either solid or liquid at room temperature.

T

A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is

carb loading

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

Sweetened soft drinks are the most common source of added sugars in the American diet.

T

When oxygen availability is limited in the cell, lactic acid is converted to ________.

pyruvic acid

The body mass index is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition.

F

Which of the following is NOT a health-promoting function associated with a high intake of plant-based foods?

decrease in bone loss associated with the osteoporosis

The human body cannot store glycogen during the first 24 hours of recovery from intense exercise.

F

Creatine use is permitted by collegiate and professional sports organizations.

T

Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?

Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.

Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

corn oil

Epidemiological studies cannot identify cause-and-effect relationships between food intake and disease.

T

Jorge is a weightlifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge's protein needs?

Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.

Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen?

Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Phytochemicals are nutrients necessary for sustaining health and life.

Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes.

F

Plant fats provide 80-90% of their energy from saturated fats.

F

Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic.

T

People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbohydrate.

T

By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the ________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.

hypothalamus

Which of these is the most important dietary aspect to modify for weight loss?

calories

Miguel weighs 250 pounds and is trying to lose weight. He decides to start an exercise program and starts walking (2 mph) for 30 minutes, five days a week. This activity burns 0.044 kcals/kg body weight/minute. How many additional kcals will Miguel burn each week with this exercise regime?

750

An acid-base imbalance can result in ________

coma and death.

The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the ________

amine group.

Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?

thyroxin

In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.

ketones

A lack of fiber in the diet can lead to sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease called ________.

diverticulosis

The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.

saturated

A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short-term deficiency of protein is ________.

kwashiorkor

The set-point theory suggests that our bodies are designed to maintain our weight within a ________ range.

narrow

Which of the following are excellent sources of unsaturated fats?

nuts and nut butters

The storage form of glucose in animals is ________.

glycogen

As they are NOT digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon.

F

In general, animal-based fats are high in saturated fats.

T

Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?

a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant

Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?

side chain

As long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance.

F

The energy we expend just to maintain our resting functions, such as respiration and circulation is the ________ metabolic rate.

basal

How do phytochemicals reduce our risk for disease?

They reduced the risk of cancer.

Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body's cells?

Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule.

The FIT principle is ________

the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.

When oxygen is scarce, cellular pyruvic acid will be converted to ________

lactic acid

People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbohydrate.

T

Lance would like to lose two pounds a week. If his present energy intake is 4,200 kcals a day and his energy expenditure does not change, how many kilocalories should he consume each day to achieve his goal?

3,200

What is the National Weight Control Registry?

an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year

A limitation in using the body mass index is that it ________

does not take body composition into account.

Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of ________ stored in skeletal muscles.

glycogen

The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ________.

monounsaturated

Lactic acid is an important intermediate of glucose breakdown, playing a critical role in supplying fuel to the working muscle, heart, and resting tissues.

T

Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity.

T

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

two monosaccharides.

The term "enriched" on a food label signifies that ________

the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in.

The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are ________.

proteases

Eating large amounts of sugar can temporarily cause diabetes.

F

To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________

bile

Research has found the strongest association between dietary fat intake and what type of cancer?

prostate

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