Nutrition Exam 5

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Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism?

1,855 kcals

All of the following are examples of low carbohydrate, high protein diets EXCEPT

the DASH diet

Ghrelin is ________

a gastric protein that stimulates appetite.

Thirst is a relatively poor indicator of dehydration.

T

Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages.

F

In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?

weightlifting

Which of the following is FALSE concerning aerobic metabolism?

It leads to muscle fatigue

Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training.

The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ________

mutual supplementation

The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a ________

lacto-ovo vegetarian.

A ________ is a spherical compound made up of bile and phospholipids that prepares dietary fat for absorption.

micelle

Lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of ________.

galactose

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?

225

Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?

butter

Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen into its active form pepsin.

T

An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.

composition

During transcription, ________ copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis. (Write your answer as an abbreviation in lower and upper case letters.)

mRNA

An RDA for phytochemicals has not been established.

T

Lipids can be either solid or liquid at room temperature.

T

A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is

carb loading

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

Sweetened soft drinks are the most common source of added sugars in the American diet.

T

When oxygen availability is limited in the cell, lactic acid is converted to ________.

pyruvic acid

The body mass index is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition.

F

Which of the following is NOT a health-promoting function associated with a high intake of plant-based foods?

decrease in bone loss associated with the osteoporosis

The human body cannot store glycogen during the first 24 hours of recovery from intense exercise.

F

Creatine use is permitted by collegiate and professional sports organizations.

T

Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?

Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.

Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

corn oil

Epidemiological studies cannot identify cause-and-effect relationships between food intake and disease.

T

Jorge is a weightlifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge's protein needs?

Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.

Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen?

Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Phytochemicals are nutrients necessary for sustaining health and life.

Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes.

F

Plant fats provide 80-90% of their energy from saturated fats.

F

Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic.

T

People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbohydrate.

T

By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the ________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.

hypothalamus

Which of these is the most important dietary aspect to modify for weight loss?

calories

Miguel weighs 250 pounds and is trying to lose weight. He decides to start an exercise program and starts walking (2 mph) for 30 minutes, five days a week. This activity burns 0.044 kcals/kg body weight/minute. How many additional kcals will Miguel burn each week with this exercise regime?

750

An acid-base imbalance can result in ________

coma and death.

The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the ________

amine group.

Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?

thyroxin

In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.

ketones

A lack of fiber in the diet can lead to sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease called ________.

diverticulosis

The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.

saturated

A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short-term deficiency of protein is ________.

kwashiorkor

The set-point theory suggests that our bodies are designed to maintain our weight within a ________ range.

narrow

Which of the following are excellent sources of unsaturated fats?

nuts and nut butters

The storage form of glucose in animals is ________.

glycogen

As they are NOT digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon.

F

In general, animal-based fats are high in saturated fats.

T

Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?

a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant

Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?

side chain

As long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance.

F

The energy we expend just to maintain our resting functions, such as respiration and circulation is the ________ metabolic rate.

basal

How do phytochemicals reduce our risk for disease?

They reduced the risk of cancer.

Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body's cells?

Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule.

The FIT principle is ________

the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.

When oxygen is scarce, cellular pyruvic acid will be converted to ________

lactic acid

People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbohydrate.

T

Lance would like to lose two pounds a week. If his present energy intake is 4,200 kcals a day and his energy expenditure does not change, how many kilocalories should he consume each day to achieve his goal?

3,200

What is the National Weight Control Registry?

an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year

A limitation in using the body mass index is that it ________

does not take body composition into account.

Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of ________ stored in skeletal muscles.

glycogen

The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ________.

monounsaturated

Lactic acid is an important intermediate of glucose breakdown, playing a critical role in supplying fuel to the working muscle, heart, and resting tissues.

T

Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity.

T

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

two monosaccharides.

The term "enriched" on a food label signifies that ________

the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in.

The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are ________.

proteases

Eating large amounts of sugar can temporarily cause diabetes.

F

To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________

bile

Research has found the strongest association between dietary fat intake and what type of cancer?

prostate

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves.

Substances that claim to build muscle and increase strength are called ________ steroids.

anabolic

Which of the following is NOT one of the physiological effects of regular physical activity?

decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)

During exercise what source(s) is/are used by the body for glucose?

glycogen stored in skeletal muscles

Andrea thinks that carbohydrate loading could be beneficial to her. Which of the following statements is FALSE about this practice?

Carbohydrate loading is helpful for moderately intense physical activity to maintain fitness.

Unless labeled as zero trans fatty acids, most margarines will have more trans fatty acids than butter.

T

Because they are not nutrients, high intakes of phytochemical supplements are not harmful.

F

People with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 are considered ________.

overweight

Intensity of aerobic activities should be at least 110% of maximal heart rate.

F

Athletes should not take iron supplements unless prescribed by a health care professional.

T

The storage form of glucose in animals found in the liver and skeletal muscle is

glycogen

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

Lipids that contain multiple carbon-ring structures are ________.

sterols

A/n ________ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food.

fortified

Combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ________ supplementation.

mutual

In men, a waist-to-hip ratio higher than ________ is associated with an increased risk for chronic disease.

0.90

On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age.

30

Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.

adipose

Which of the following sources of phytochemicals is thought to be the most beneficial to human health?

whole foods

Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease.

T

Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength.

F

In which of the following types of exercise would CP (creatine phosphate) be an important source of energy?

sprinting in the 100-meter race

Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?

The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.

Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to

increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source.

The term complex carbohydrates refers to

polysaccharides

Gluconeogenesis is

the synthesis of new glucose from amino acids.

As long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance.

F

The ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is called the ________ system.

cardiorespiratory

The absorption of proteins occurs in the ________

small intestine

Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes?

sickle cell anemia

A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is ________.

hypoglycemia

A woman with a hip-to-waist ratio higher than .80 is at an increased risk for the development of some chronic diseases.

T

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sugar is 300 grams a day.

F

An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.

composition

In the stomach, HCl converts the inactive enzyme ________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins.

pepsinogen

A triglyceride is comprised of ________

3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?

Hydrogenation creates a "heart healthy" product.

To stay healthy, athletes should consume less than 15% of their kcals from fat.

F

Consuming high glycemic foods immediately after exercising can enhance glycogen storage.

T

Robin's dinner contains 750 kilocalories. How many kilocalories will Robin expend in order to process this meal?

38-75 kilocalories

What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?

The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue.

A diet high in simple sugars has been shown to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.

T

Which of the following BEST describes Dr. Barry Sears' The Zone Diet?

high-protein diet designed for competitive athletes

Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?

gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)

The BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height2 (in meters).

F

Which of the following is NOT a function of fat in the human body?

Fats make us feel hungry.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are metabolic derivatives of ________

alpha-linolenic acid.

Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy.

F

A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________

morbid obesity.

The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's ________

lean body mass.

People with the disorder ________ should not consume aspartame. (Be sure to write out your answer; do not use an abbreviation.)

phenylketonuria

Research has found that the health-promoting properties of phytochemicals are primarily due to their antioxidant activity.

F

Antioxidants neutralize

free radicals

Muscle tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10-15 minutes.

F

The best way to treat sports anemia is with iron supplements.

F

Insoluble fiber consumption is associated with decreased

risk of diverticulosis.

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?

225

The majority of the research demonstrating the relationship between a reduced disease risk and a high intake of plant food comes from large epidemiological studies.

T

Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar.

F

The positively charged electrolyte concentrated inside the cell is potassium, and the positively charged electrolyte concentrated outside the cell is ________.

sodium

Which nutrient requires the least amount of energy to digest, transport, and store?

fat

In theory, what would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcal every day for four weeks (e.g., about 28 days)?

4 lbs

The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is the amount of lean body mass one has.

T

If an ingredient label indicates a product contains partially hydrogenated oils, it will almost assuredly contain trans fats.

T

Women who are pregnant or ________ are at higher risk of developing harmful effects from environmental contaminates in some fish.

breastfeeding

Recent research indicates ________ proteins, found in brown adipose tissue, appear to inhibit ATP formation and cause an increase loss of energy through body heat, thus making certain individuals are more resistant to weight gain and obesity.

uncoupling

Well-planned vegetarian diets can reduce the risk of all of the following chronic diseases EXCEPT

anemia

Which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans?

vitamin C

Where in the body do we find the greatest storage of potential energy?

body fat

Our bodies store glycogen at the highest rate ________ hours after excercise.

24

Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?

People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

Which of the following is a monosaccharide?

galactose

The breakdown of glucose to provide quick energy to the body is called ________.

glycolysis

The FIT principle considers three factors in achieving an appropriate overload for physical training: ________, intensity, and time.

frequency

An RDA for phytochemicals has not been established.

T

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