process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
consumers that eat only plants
The herbivores in an ecosystem; organisms that feed on primary producers
consumers that eat only animals
The carnivores in an ecosystem; organisms that feed on primary consumers
an organism that eats both plants and animals.
animal that hunts and eats other animals
any animal that feeds on refuse and other decaying organic matter
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows from primary producers and so on.
the total mass of all organic matter in each trophic level of food chains
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
several food chains that include the same animals put together.
organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
consumers, they rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
Gross primary productivity
the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy
Net primary productivity
The gross primary productivity minus the energy used by the producers for cellular respiration; represents the storage of chemical energy in an ecosystem available to consumers., the rate at which biomass accumulates in an ecosystem