nutrition final

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nutrition

1. People make food choices based on what possible reasons?

a. Body image
b. Ethnic heritage or tradition
c. Emotional comfort
d. Nutrition

2. Dietary intakes standards are called:

c. Dietary reference Intakes (DRI)

3. Which of the following alert(s) your conscious mind to the sensation of hunger?

a. Brain
b. Hormones

4. The six categories of nutrients are:

b. Carbohydrates, fats, protein, water, vitamins, minerals

5. How many kilocalories will a product with 25 grams of PROTEIN, 19 grams of FAT, and 5 grams of CARBOHYDRATE contain?

c. 291 kilocalories

6. Carbohydrates are used by the body mainly:

a. As a source of readily available energy

Ingredients (in a food label) should be posted in order of:

a. Highest concentration to lowest concentration

8. What will happen if pepsin was not released in the stomach after eating?

c. Proteins would not be digested

9. What is the function of the Sphincter of Oddi?

a. to control the entrance of bile into the small intestine

10. The most common monossacharides include:

d. Glucose, galactose, and fructose

11. _____ is the hormone responsible for stimulating the release of glucose when blood glucose falls too low

a. Glucagon

12. _________ is the hormone responsible for helping maintain the pH within the stomach.

b. Gastrin

13. Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of:

b. Peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract.

14. Which of the following is a description of chyme?

b. A semi liquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestine

15. ______ is the basic unit of a lipid

a. triglyceride

16. After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?

c. Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

17. How many kilocalories are in 21 grams of fat?

189

18. Which nutrient contains the most calories per gram?

b. Lipids

19. The main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol is:

c. High saturated and trans fat intake.

20. Which part of the body stores glycogen?

a. Liver
b. Muscle

21. What percent of calories in one's diet should come from carbohydrate?

d. 45-65

22. The liver converts excess carbohydrates into:

a. Glycogen
c. Fat

23. Oils containing saturated fat include:

a. coconut oil
b. palm oil

24. Which of the following monosaccharides is responsible for the sweet taste of fruit?

b. Fructose

25. The most common dissacharides include:

b. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose

26. Which is the sphincter that connects the stomach with the small intestine?

b. Pyloric

27. The digestion of starch begins in the

Mouth

28. The breaking apart of foods into smaller and smaller units is called:

Digestion

The functions of fat include which of the following:

a component of cell membranes, insulation and protection of internal organs, provide calories

Which of the following is NOT required on food labels

All of the following are required on food labels: Name and address of the manufacturer, A list of the ingredients in descending order by weight, The net weight of the product contained within the package

When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar (glucose), this compound is release

Insulin

32. The primary function of the ________________ is to store and concentrate bile from the liver.

Gallbladder

33. What transport system requires a carrier to cross a membrane?

Facilitated diffusion

34. Cholesterol is synthesized in the __________.

Liver

35. Failure of the _________________________ sphincter will cause food to slide from the stomach back into the esophagus.

Esophageal

Characteristics of type 2 diabetes include all of the following except:

A pancreas that makes too little or no insulin

37. One standard drink includes:

One 12 oz can of beer

38. A nutrient level that exceeds the tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is harmful

true

39. Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is composed of which two monosaccharides?

Glucose and fructose

Which artificial sweetener is made from sucrose?

Sucralose

When food is in the GI tract it is outside the body.

true

Vitamins contain:

0 kcal/gram

The nutrient intake level estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the individuals in a life stage and gender group is known as:

Estimated average requirement (EAR)

Which of the following is not a function of the G.I. tract

Exchange of oxygen within the blood cells

45. The purpose of the villi and microvilli in the intestinal tract is to:

Trap the nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells.

46. Which of the following is true about alcohol metabolism?

It occurs in the liver, It occurs at a rate of 1 drink/hour

47. Characteristics of the essential fatty acids include:

they must be supplied by the diet, they are polyunsaturated fatty acids

48. Fatty acids may differ from one another:

in chain length, in degree of saturation

49. According to the AMDR, protein should make up what percentage of daily calories?

10-35%

Which of these factors influence alcohol impairment?

a. Gender
b. Body size
c. Mood
d. Whether or not there is food in the stomach

The most widespread form of malnutrition worldwide today is...

Protein Energy Malnutrition

2. What is the primary source of fuel for muscles?

Carbohydrates

3. During a long distance run, which of the following processes provides energy?

b. Aerobic respiration
c. Krebs Cycle

"Pear shaped" fat distribution is more commonly seen in males and is linked to more health risks than "apple shaped" fat distribution.

false

5. Which of the following is NOT true concerning proteins and amino acids?

There are 22 different amino acids

6. Vitamin A prevents

xerophthalmia

Niacin prevents

Pellagra

Thiamin prevents

Beriberi

Vitamin C prevents

scurvy

Vitamin D prevents

Rickets

The primary function of Vitamin K is:

Help in blood clotting

According to DRI recommendations, how many grams of protein would an adult female weighing 120 lb. need daily?

43.6 g.

Amino Acids are most easily absorbed from...

Animal sources of protein

14. Measuring waist circumference is a more accurate technique than Body Mass Index for determining health risks in athletes.

true

15. Why don't fasting diets work?

Body defends itself by decreasing basal metabolic rate, Body became more efficient at taking fat for storage, Obesity is a chronic disease

Which vitamin is responsible for preventing neural tube defects?

Folate

Calculate the BMI for a 20 year old male that weighs 150 lb. and has a height of 5 feet and 11 inches.

21.0

Which of the following is NOT true concerning the differences between water and fat-soluble vitamins?

Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed into the lymph

Water-soluble vitamins can be lost during food preparation due to...

water, heat, light

20. Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of a protein

All of the following are fxns of proteins: Formation of enzymes, Acid-base balance, Immune function, Source of energy

21. A deficiency what vitamin(s) can result in anemia?

Vitamin B12, Folate

22. Which is not a function of phytochemicals?

Provide energy during exercise

23. Which of the following herbal supplements are taken to improve memory and help prevent Alzheimer's Disease?

Ginkgo

If you eat a lot of red fruits or tomatoes, you can expect to get plenty of which phytochemical.

Lycopene

Examples of aerobic physical activity include all of the following except:

run 100 mts dash

A BMI of 20.5 would be considered...

healthy

27. __________ is a hormone produced by the stomach to stimulate hunger.

Ghrelin

In which activity is your body not utilizing calories?

Calories are being spent during all of the following: Sleeping, Studying, Watching T.V., Sitting through lecture

Which of the following accounts for the differences among the various amino acids?

The side chain

Which of the following should not be used by athletes?

coke, alcohol

All of the following cause denaturation of proteins except...

light

If amino acids are oversupplied

The body removes and excretes their amine groups, The body converts amino acid residues to glycogen or fat

The calorie-deficiency disease resulting from chronic starvation is known most specifically as

Marasmus

The more animal protein you eat, the higher your intake of _____.

Vitamin B12

The primary structure of an amino acid refers to...

The sequence of amino acids along a chain in a protein

When dieting, it is best to strive for 5 to 10 pounds of weight lost per week so that a normal diet can be resumed as soon as possible

false

37. Sports drinks offer some advantages over water for athletes who:

need to replenish electrolytes.

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

vitamin C

39. In order for Vitamin D to be activated for use by the body, it must first be altered by what organ(s)?

Kidneys, Liver

Due to the dangers of toxically high doses of vitamin A, it is important to monitor the amount of Beta Carotene in the diet.

false

Which vitamin(s) function as antioxidants?

Vitamin C, Vitamin E

What is the basal energy output of a 135 lb. female

1411 calories

43. Waist circumference reflects the degree of _____ in proportion to body fatness.

Visceral fatness

All of the following are involved in signaling satiation (stomach, small intestine, brain's hypothalamus) except:

the heart

45. By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except

A vitamin IS An organic compound, Indispensable to body function, Needed in minute amounts
A vitamin is NOT: A non-essential nutrient

46. One pound of body fat is equal to _____ calories

3500

47. Our basal metabolic rate (BMR) contributes approximately _____ to our total energy expenditure.

50-65%

48. The North American Pima Indians are an example of environmental influences on obesity.

true

49. In the early minutes of an activity, _____ provides the majority of energy the muscles use to go into action.

muscle glycogen

The term ergogenic:

implies that the product has special working enhancing powers, is associated with supplements claim to benefits athletes

"Hot Zone" refers to...

The perfect shelf height and area, just below eye level

2. Zinc is essential for which of the following functions:

Wound healing, Sexual maturation, Taste and smell

3. Which of the following actions is more likely to harm a friend who is suffering from an eating disorder than help them?

Offering a couple of simple solutions

4. The first sign of dehydration is______?

Thirst

5. Which of the following is true for potassium?

It is the major cation inside the cells

You do not have to worry about one of your male friends suffering from an eating disorder.

False

7. Which of the following is a factor for causing or perpetuating an eating disorder?

Each of the following is a factor of eating disorders: Genetics, Chemical imbalance, Stress and anxiety, Loss of control in other areas of life

Which is a behavior that would be seen from someone who is suffering from an eating disorder?

All of the following are suspicious behaviors: Using laxatives to speed food transit and decrease absorption time, Exercising excessively to overcompensate for food eaten that day, Pushing food around on their plate to simulate eating, Coincidentally being busy or having other plans every time they are invited out to eat

9. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of normal eating behavior?

Giving a majority of your time and attention to the food you have consumed or will eat later in the day

10. Departments that net the most profit are found in the ____________?

Perimeter

11. Which of the following is not a major mineral?

Iron

12. Macrominerals are different fom Microminerals because...

They are required in larger daily amounts

13. Most of our daily water input comes from _______?

The food that we eat

1. Which mineral is needed at higher levels than any other mineral?

Calcium

it is legal for grocers to repackage food items that are expired beyond the "sell by" date.

true

16. As fresh foods go through processing (for example a fresh potato becomes a potato chip) which of the following holds true?

The amount of sodium increases as the amount of potassium decreases

17. One percent of the body's calcium is found in the blood stream. Which of the following is a function of this 1%?

Muscle contraction, Blood clot, Transport of ions, Neurotransmitter secretion

18. Calcium balance between bone and blood is tightly regulated. Which of the following is/are a tool utilized by the body to help maintain this balance.

Vitamin D, Parathyroid hormone

After what age is peak bone mass achieved, where no more calcium can be stored as a bank to prevent osteoporosis?

30

Magnesium

Participates in blood clotting

Phosphorus

Forms part of the cell membrane

Chloride

Is required to make stomach acid

Potassium

Critical for maintaining a heart beat

Electrolytes can be lost by all of the following EXCEPT:

Exhaling

According to the video on diet and health, the number one leading cause of death is ________?

Heart disease

Which of the following statements about water is NOT true?

FALSE: It makes up about 80% of adult body weight
TRUE:
-It is the most indispensible nutrient
-It participates in chemical reactions in the body
-2/3 of water is intracellular fluid
-All of the above statements are true

27. About how many cups of water does a male need daily

13 cups

28. Over half of the body's magnesium is stored in the:

bones

29. Which of the following is true about trace minerals?

Bioavailability of minerals is influenced by genetics, Content in a food is influenced by food processing methods

Which of the following electrolytes is the major anion outside of the cells

Chloride

A deficiency of which of the following microminerals is/are associated with anemia?

Iron, copper

32. Which type of iron is only found in animal sources?

Heme

33. Water excretion is regulated by the:

brain and kidneys

34. If you want to absorb the maximum amount of iron from a supplement you should take it with:

Orange juice

35. According to the video on diet and health watched in class, which of the following diseases are related to food intake:

Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Cancer

36. Which of the following groups are at risk of iron deficiency?

Vegans, Endurance Athletes, Pregnant women, A menstruating female

37. Goiter is caused by a deficiency of _____?

Iodine

38. Food temperature danger zone is between _________?

40 and 140 °F

39. Which of the following is not a step of the fight BAC?

Chop

40. Which of the following pathogens is most closely associated with poor hygiene of food handlers?

Norovirus

41. How can you tell if a hamburger is safely cooked?

It is cooked to the proper temperature (160oF)

It is recommended that pregnant women heat deli meat before eating because of which of the following pathogens can grow at refrigeration temperatures?

Listeria

43. Which of the following groups should avoid all uncooked meat or undercooked eggs?

The elderly, Those who suffer immune dysfunction

44. Chocolate is a great source of ______?

Zinc

45. Wilson's disease occurs as a result of too much ______?

Copper

46. Too much fluoride can result in _____?

Fluorosis of bone and teeth

47. To thaw food safely, one should do all of the following except:

Thaw the frozen item in warm water

48. Which of the following is not an effect of anorexia?

Stomach ulcers

49. This severe form of iodine deficiency occurs when a baby is born to an iodine-deficient mother:

cretinism

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