Usual storms ruined crops , ¼ of crops failed, between the years of 1315 and 1322, poor nutrition led to poor productivity which led to higher prices and greater susceptibility to disease.
The bubonic plague, which struck in Europe in 1317, was brought by Genoese sailors from the strait of Gibraltar and was carried by fleas on rats and spread from person to person.
Nationalism is a sense of unity among people through a shared characteristic: language, customs, culture, etc; often to the exclusion of others.
Confraternities and Conciliarism
Confraternities were voluntary lay groups (laity were the people in the church not the clergy) organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, charitable activity. Lay people gained power from conciliarism. The principle of conciliarism is that all authority should NOT rest with the pope, but instead with a council of clergy, theologians, and lay people.
Babylonian Captivity refers to the 70 year time span, between 1307-1377, when the pope resided in Avignon instead of Rome after Phillip the fair asked Clement V to stay in order to have power over him. It is a Biblical Reference to the time of the Hebrews in Babylon.
The Great Schism was a division of church leadership for political reasons, which resulted in the existence of 2 then 3 popes
There was a rise in peasant revolts possibly due to the lack of socio-economic mobility for the peasants
Dante and the vernacular
Dante wrote divine comedy about hell, purgatory, and paradise written in Italian. Vernacular is national language NOT Latin and allowed more people to read it.
Describe the economic and social consequences of the Great Famine
Poor harvest and famine forced people to leave their homes causing a rise in the amount of homelessness. Some peasants were forced to mortgage, sell, or sublease their houses. Then they tried to buy it back causing an economy that was explosive. Marriage postponements led to a decrease in population and increase in prostitution. Disaster in one country spread due to global trade.
How did the Black Death affect European society? Discuss the social, economic, and cultural consequences.
The Black Death caused both an increase in piety and indulgence. The large death toll cut production of goods, but gave peasants more socio-economic mobility.
The Hundred Years War:discuss the impact of a single leader, Joan of Arc, on a long, international war.
Joan of Arc managed to convince King Charles VII to claim the crown and evict the English. Joan of Arc helped the French to gain morale and caused two turning points in the war: the victory at Orleans and the crowning of Charles VII.
Using Map 12.2, pg 384, discuss the fortunes on England. (INSERT PHOTO)
France started with most of the land then began to loose more and more of the land around Aquintaine to England. Then England gained more land at the top, but by the end of the war ended up with less.
What were the causes of peasant unrest and revolts? Of urban and revolt.
Peasant revolts greatly increased during due to increased taxes and misappropriation of money collected. Peasants burned castles, killed, and raped nobles. In urban areas, artisans, small merchants, and parish priests blame nobility for loss in war and oppressive taxes.
The Renaissance means "rebirth". The term was first used by Vasari. The Renaissance was a time period of the return of the classics.
Humanism, the study of liberal arts, was the study of the classics to have a better understanding of human nature. Humanist studies emphasized human interest, achievements, and capabilities.
Christian Humanism, practiced by humanists in the North. It interpreted Italian Ideas in terms of their own traditions. Christian humanists created a plan for social reform based on Christian ideals. They believed that the best of classics and Christianity combined for an ethical way to live.
Individualism was an attitude that stressed personality, genius, uniqueness, and full development of ones talents. Individualism was a basic feature of the Renaissance and led to recognition for artists and intellectuals.
Liberal arts are the study of Latin Classics. The study of liberal arts deals with humanism.
Secularism is the concern withe the matterial world rather then the spiritual world. Secularism tends to find an explanation for everything and the final end of human king within earthly things.
Communes were North Italian cities sworn association of free seeking political and economic independence from local nobles. There were communes in places suchas Milan, Florence, Genda, Pisa.
Oligarchy a small group of feudal nobility and commercial elite who ruled a city and the surrounding country side. The ruling oligarchy in any city were tied together by social connections, blood, and economic interests.
Courts (not the legal kind)
Courts were palaces built in the center of cities where architects and artists were hired to decorate. Powerful signori and merchant oligarchs a chance to display their wealth and they required business to be done in these courts.
Signori in Italian means both persons and forms of government. Signori power was hereditary handed from father to son with one ruler a time.
A republic is a non-monarchy in (theoretically) which power resides in the people and is exerted by elected officials. Although there were many "republics" most were really controlled by merchant oligarchy behind the scenes.
Balance of Power
Balance of power is demonstrated by the Italian states in that if one of the states became too powerful the others united against the threat. They employed methods such as "modern" diplomacy.
Medici Family and Banking
The Medici family became tax collectors for the papacy and then began to dominate European Banking. Their power and wealth enabled them to become patrons of the arts.
Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince
Machiavelli's the Prince, a book, which Machiavelli wrote about how a ruler should gain, keep, and increase power. It not only justifies the absolute power, but also almost any means used to obtain it.
Thomas Moore, Utopia
Thomas Moore wrote about Utopia, which he called a "good place", but Utopia means no place. Moore was attempting to suggest that greed was a major problem in society. In his Utopia, humans live a near perfect existence through reasoning.
Erasmus was an orphan sent to a monastery and forced to become a priest though he hated it. Influenced by John Colet to write the application of the best Humanistic Learning to study.
Johan Gutenberg used movable type to print books and although many others had the same idea. Johan Gutenberg is considered important because his Bible led to many important changes to public and private lives of Europeans. The Gutenberg Bible gave people access to the same edition, which allowed for discussion as well as increase in the availability of books and literacy.
Patronage is the support of the arts often by merchants, bankers, popes, and princes as a means of glorifying themselves and their families. It allowed powerful men to show off their wealth.
Race (Renaissance Concept)
Race in the Renaissance was closely linked to blood and ethnicity. Blood could be characterized as Jewish, German, etc. Race was mostly used to describe groups like the "Spanish Race" and social groups, the "Race of Learned Gentlemen." Races were differentiated by continent of origin. Renaissance people did not view race in the same was as the present day, but they did judge, on skin color, that distinctions were woven into religious distinctions, natural meanings, and was the "foundation" of the later meaning of race.
In Medevil Times, people were categorized in to groups by job: clergy, nobility, and everyone else. The current class divisions were created after the Renaissance by who worked for wages and who owned the equipment.
Orders also known as estates highlighted the important differences between nobles and commoners while working well in setting out societal categories for membership. The 1st estate were more likely to have more money than those in the 3rd estate and even if they didn't they still had higher social status. Some class mobility was possible because commoners could gain social status through purchase of titles, marriage, or service to a monarch. Some jobs were highly paid, but considered dishonorable for example executioner this was because honor was important to social status. Orders were also differentiated by clothing and celebrations.
Gender's meaning is a culturally constructed and historically changing. During the renaissance, gender did not exist. Women were not necessarily required to work, they were paid much less, and their work was not viewed as supporting the family (even if it did). Gender was possibly the most protected trait during the renaissance because it is most "natural".
Gabelle and Taille
The gabelle and tallie were taxes in France implemented to strengthen the royal treasury after the Hundred Years War during the reign of of Charles VII. The gabelle was a tax on salt and the tallie was a land tax. These taxes remained the chief sources of income for the French Crown until the French Revolution.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges created by Charles VII in 1438, made a general council superior to the papacy, taking the French ecclesiastical revenues away from the Pope and giving the crown major influence over the appointment of bishops. It established French liberties giving special rights to the French Crown over the French Church. The larger control over the church help to consolidate the authority of the French Crown.
Concordat of Bologna:what was it and who were the key actors
The Concordat of Bologna was an agreement between Francis I and Pope Leo X. It repealed the assertion that general council was superior to the papacy and granted the Pope 1st year's revenue from bishops and abbots in exchange the French King received the right to appoint officials of the church in France.
War of the Roses
The War of the Roses was a civil war between the ducal houses of the Yorkist and the Landcasters. The name of the war came from the symbols of the 2 houses:the Yorkists had a white rose and the Landcasters a red one. The war went on from 1455-1471 and hurt trade, domestic industry, and agriculture.
England: Royal Council
The royal council governed on a nation level mostly Henry VII showed his distrust of the nobility by the inclusion of few lords. The council was mostly made up of common born with land and education in law, the middle class. The council was made up of 12-15 men many of whom gained clerical status as payment.
England: Court of the Star Chamber
The Court of the Star Chamber was a judicial offshoot, which dealt with real or potential aristocratic threats. The court applied the principles of Roman Law including now allowing a person to see the evidence against them, secret sessions, and the use of torture. It received its name from the stars painted on the roof of the ceiling of the chamber where it met.
England: Justice of the Peace
The justices of the peace were unpaid local landowners who were relied upon by the Tudors. These influential landowners in the shires handled all the work of local government. They enforced law and punishments and kept the correct standards for measures and weights.
Spain: Reconquista, Hermandades, Conversos, Inquistition
The Reconquista was the wars in the northern christian kingdoms to control the entire peninsula. Hermandades also known as "brotherhoods" were popular groups given authority to act as local judges and police. Conversos were "New Christians" , Jews who had converted to Christianity. The success of conversos bred resentment: Aristocratic grandees resented financial dependence, poor resented tax collectors, and Churchmen doubted the sincerity of their conversions. The Inquisition sought to find conversos who secretly still adhered to Jewish beliefs or preforming Jewish rights. It was called the Inquisition because of its ruthless methods.
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by an emperor, loosely unified and contained most of Europe minus England, France, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, and Italy up until Poland.
Raphael and the School of Athens
Raphael painted the school of Athens a painting, which was commissioned by the Pope to decorate his apartment. It is non-religious, but it fits withe antiquity and the renaissance. In the painting Plato is pointing toward the sky represent the view that the heavens are reflected down on the Earth and Aristotle is pointing down representing a study of Earthly things.
Michelangelo and David
Michelangelo sculpted a figure of David.
Michelangelo and Sistine Ceiling
Michelangelo was commissioned by the Pope to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and he painted the Last Judgment on the altar piece.
Leonardo Da Vinci and Mona Lisa
Leonardo da Vinci was a brilliant man as well as na artist; he offered his services as a military engineer to Duke Lulovico Sforza of Milan. He painted the Mona Lisa: a painting possibly of a merchant's wife. It contains a young women; her body and face are not in profile but not facing directly at the viewer either adding realism.
Leonardo da Vinci and Last Supper
The last supper was a depiction of the Last Supper from the Bible by Leonardo da Vinci.
Artemisia Genetileschi and Judith with the head of Holofernes
Artemisia Gentileschi was a female painter who as was typical for a women painter trained by her father. She mastered the dramatic style favored in the 17th century and became known for her portraits of strong mythological and biblical heroines.
Jan Van Eyck and Arnolfini Portrait
Jan Van Eyck was one of the first artists to use oil paints successfully. He painted the Arnolfini Portrait a portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his bride. His paintings show realism and attention to personality. He used symbolism throughout the painting and included his reflection in the mirror.
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain were rulers of Castile and Aragon the more powerful kingdoms in Spain. The were married. which constituted a dynastic union, but not a political one. they got permission from Pope Alexander VI to appoint bishops and created a national church and others to convert; the doubt of these conversions led to the inquisition.
What was the cultural basis of Humanism in the Renaissance?
The cultural basis for humanism in the Renaissance was due to the study of the Latin classics , which were the basis for humanism.
Define Christian humanism and how it differed fromt Italian Humanism?
Christian Humanism is the belief that the best of the classics combined with Christianity created ideal life. Christian humanism was religious while Italian Humanism was secular.
What are some features of the political leadership of France, England, and Spain?
Some Features of political leadership in France, England, and Spain were attempted control over religion, attempts to curb unruly nobles, and insistence by the monarchs on the loyalty and trapsings of rule.
Describe four characteristics of social hierarchies in the Renaissance.
Four characteristics of social hierarchies were differentiation between educated and uneducated, idealization because no everyone stays or fits in a certain category, religion is included, and women are lesser.
What were the economic and political conditions leading to the Reconnaissance.
The economic and political conditions leading to the Renaissance were economic growth and attempts at social mobility.
The call for reform in the Catholic Church due to problems such as absenteeism, pluralism, indulgences, and uneducated and unethical clergy. During the reformation many faiths split off ex. Lutheranism and Protestantism.
Martin Luther and the 95 Theses
Martin Luther was a German university professor and Augustinian friar. Martin Luther's father intended him to pursue a legal career, but after a thunder storm he joined the monastery and was spiritually conscious. After studying St. Paul's letters he came to believe in "faith alone, grace alone, and spirit alone." He became upset about the St. Peter's Indulgence and wrote the 95 theses about follies of indulgences.
Anticlericalism is the opposition to the clergy. Critics of the clergy complained about immorality, ignorance, and pluralism. Clergy became drunk, gambled, dressed in fancy clothing, had concubines could barely read or write, and collected revenue from multiple churches.
Pluralism is the practice, by the clergy, of having several benefices or offices. This led to the practice of Absenteeism.
Absenteeism was when the clergy seldom visited benefices and did not perform their spiritual duties. They instead hired a poor priest and payed him much less to perform the spiritual duties of the church.
An indulgence was a piece of parchment or paper that was signed by a church official that substituted one virtuous acts from the treasury of merit for penance. People believed the purchase of indulgences could substitute for time in purgatory and penance.
Penance is when to be forgiven by God a Sinner must confess sins to a priest and preform an assigned religious act such as prayer or fasting. Purgatory was a sort of heavenly penance.
Purgatory is a pace where souls are believed to go for punishment before they enter heaven to make up for the sins that they committed on Earth. Depending on the time period, purgatory could just be a place without God or a place with physical punishment. Time in Purgatory was believed to be shortenable by memorial services and prayer.
Diet of Worms
The Diet of Worms was the first diet called by called by Charles V it got its name from where it was held, Worms. Charles V summoned Marin Luther to appear before the diet for his beliefs. A diet is basically similar to Parliament, a house of representatives.
German Peasants War
The German Peasants War was when Swcebian Peasant representatives drew up 12 Articles expressing their grievance. Peasants wanted social mobility and believed it fit with Martin Luther's teachings.
Peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Augsburg officially recognized Lutheranism and gave territories choice between Lutheranism and Catholicism. Dissidents had to either convert or move.
Transubstantiation is the belief, by consecration of a priest, during mass, the bread and wine become the blood and body of Christ. Luther believed that in Christ's presence due to God's mystery but not priests consecration.
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer was written in English by Archbishop Tomas Cranmer in 1549. It included order for all services in England with the Psalter during Protestant time.
The Elizabethan Settlement required outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity in ceremonies, but does not require a specific belief. The Elizabethan Act prevented further religious civil war during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Calvin and the Institutes of the Christian Religion, predestination, the elect, the Huguenots.
Calvin was born in France and studied law then experienced a religious crisis causing him to convert to Protestantism. The Institution of the Christian Religion was about the absolute sovereignty of God and weakness of humanity. Predestination is being destined for heaven or for hell. The elect were those to be saved. The Huguenots were the people in France that followed the teachings of Calvinism.
The Holy Office was a sacred conregation with juristiction over the Roman Inquisition, The Inquisition was a comitee of 6 cardinals with the power to arrest, imprison, and execute Catholics.
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent, also reffered to as the ecomeniacal concil, met from time to time between 1545 and 1563 and called to sevue reconciltion with the Protestants. Lutheranisma and Calvinsim were impossible to reconcile though they were invited. These talks took place at Trent, an imperial city near Italy, gave equal validation to tradition as sources of religious truth and authority and scriptures, reaffirmed sacraments and transubstiniation as well as rejecting Lutheranism and Calvinism.
The Huguenots were French Calvinists.
Inconoclasm is the deliberate destruction of religious items. Protestants called into question sacred images. Mobs destroyed religious statues, paintings, and windows. Ridiculed images through abuse and the use of them as toys for children.
Habsburg Valois Wars
The Habsburg Valois Wars were a series of wars fought in Italy, France, and Germany named for the Habsburg and Valois dynasties.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The Saint Bartholemew's Day Massacre was the killing of Huguenots and protestants paritcally due to the marriage of Margret of Valois and Henry of Navarre. The massacre led to 15 years of war, destruction of agriculture, starvation, comercial decline, and death.
Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes published by Henry IV in 1598 granting the Huguenots the right to practice their religion in 150 fortified towns. The edict help perserve peace in France leading to absolutism.
Union of Ultrecht
The Union of Utrecht consisted of 7 Northern Provinces led by Holland, which declared their independence form Spain in 1581. The North was protestant and the South remained Catholic, this angered Phillip.
Ulrich Zwingli was a swiss humanis, priest, admiror of Erasmus, who annoched that he would not preach the churches prescribed readings, but rely of Erasmus' New Testament. He understood the Lord's Supper as a memorial.
John Knox and Presbyterianism
John Knox was a preacher who was determined to model the Scottish Church after the model in Geneva. Knox gained approval from the Scottish Parliament to end Papal authority, establishing the Presbyterian Church, which was goverened by ministers (prebyters governed it not bishops).
The Habsburg Dynasty was an Austrian Dynasty, that gained power, wealth, and land famously through marriages: the marriage of Fredrich III to Princess Eleonor, Maximilian to Mary of Burgundy, Maximillian also married his son and daughter to children of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain hench "you, happy Austria marry".
Charles V controlled the Holy Roman Empire and hoped to create a united empire under a single church until the Peace of Augsburg. He abdicated from the trone in 1556, givng power over Spanish and the Netherlandish Holdings to his son, Phillip, and his imperial power to Ferdinand, his brother, and went to live in a monastery.
Phillip II was the ruler of Spain who fought a civil war after the Union of Ultrech. He launched an invasion of England to stop Queen Elizabeth's involvement, but it failed.
Henry VIII and Act of Restraint in Appeals, 1533; and the Supremacy Act, 1534
Henry VIII had 8 wives and created a new church, The Church of England, to allow allow him to divorce, after the Pope was unable to grant an anullment because he was surrounded by troops of Charles V, who was not in favor of the inullment because Henry's wife was a family member and it would basically declare her a whore. The Act of Restraint of Accpeal, in 1533, declared that the king to be supreme soverign in England and ended appeals to the Pope. The Supremacy Act, 1534, declared the King was supreme head of the church.
The Ursuline Order was an order of nuns founded by Angela Mercici, who was a gentleman's daughter, who worked for many years amoung sick, uneducated, and poor, finally getting papal approval to train young girls to be good wives and mothers.
The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and St. Ignatius Layola
The Jesuits were founded by a former soldier, Ignatius Layola who became a saint. Ignatuis Layola studied religious texts after receiving a wound and decided to become a "soldier of Christ". Believed in the reformation in spiritual condition not doctrine issues and had a mission or saving people. Cardinals underwent 2-year notivate and one year probation along with the traditional vows.
The Discalace Carmelites and St. Teresa of Ávila
The Discalaced Carmelites were a refomed house of Nuns founded by St. Teresa of Avila, who moved into the Carmeliete Convent of the Incarnation in Ávila. Most of the nunswere daughters of noblemen and life inside the convent as much like life on the outside. Teresa of Ávila began studying devotional literature and had visions and voices of God causing her to establish the Discalaced Carmelies, which had 4 principles first poverty hence discalaced meaning barefoot, secondly powerful benefactors with material demands were prohibited, thirdly class distinctions were forbidden, and fourthly obedience.
Santa Fe Capitualation
Columbus got to be viceroy over any territory he might discover and 1/10 of material rewards of the journey.
Treaty of Tordesillas
The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty in 1494 that split the New World between Spain and Portugal giving Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line and Portugal everything to the east. This decision made by Pope Alexander V in order to settle the dispute over the Atlantic discoveries. The Treaty of Tordesillas shows the Western point of view as arrogant and ignorant in that they did not account for the people already living there.
The spice trade was the European luxury trade with Asia. It was controlled by Genoa and Venice until the Portuguese then Dutch took over the spice trade. Europeans exchanged goods that they could trade abroad for Eastern luxury goods.
The caravel was a 3-masted sailing ship developed by the Portuguese during the 15th century. Its triangular lateen sails and stern post rudder increased maneuverability and cannons made of iron or bronze fired iron or stone balls were useful for protection at sea.
Ptolemy's Geography was written in the 2nd century AD by Hellenized Egyptian was the combination of ancient geography. The 1486 world map was based on Ptolemy is a huge advance over medieval times, but contains errors that had significant effects on exploration. On the map there is only one ocean and 3/4 of the earth is land.
The Spanish Armada was a group of more than 130 vessels ordered by King Phillip II to attack England after his ally Queen Mary was beheaded. Mary was Catholic and because of this Pope Sixtus V offered Phillip II 1 million ducats if he attacked England. The smaller, faster more maneuverable and greater firepowered English ships and too a greater extent storms, lack of food, and lack of ammunition defeated the Spanish Armada before it reached the Netherlands.
White potatoes were brought back by the Spanish and Portuguese. They were originally looked upon with disdain and contempt, but they were gradually recognized for their nutritional value.
The Price Revolution was when Spain experienced a steady population increase in demand for foods and goods. Spanish colonies also had a demand for foods and goods. The rising prices caused the Spanish to not be able to compete with cheaper products. Prices spiraled up faster than the government could levy taxes to dampen the economy because higher taxes would have cut the public's buying power causing the sale of less goods and a consequent fall in prices.
Tenochtitlán now Mexico City was the capital of the sophisticated Aztec Empire ruled by Montezuma II. At the time when Cortex landed in Vera Cruz, the capital was the heart of a civilization wit advance mathematics, astronomy, and engineering, with a complex social system, oral poetry, and historical traditions. In less then 2 years Cortez destroyed the monarchy, gained complete control of the capital city, and extended control over much of the Aztec Empire.
The Enocmienda System was where the crown granted he conquerors the right to employ natives in basically a leagalized form of slavery. The European demand for sugar, silver, and tobacco prompted the colonists to exploit the Americans mercilessly. The Americans wre unacustomed to forced labor espeacialy in the heat of the tropical cane fields or in the dark, dank, dangerous mines, they died in stagaring numbers.
Sugar was oringinally an expensive luxury that only the rich could afford, but increases and monetary expansion led to an increasing demand for sugar, which shaped the slave trade.
Montaigne was a humanist who believed that self-knowledge teaches men and women how to live with nature and God. He also created a new litterery genre, the essay, from essayer meaning in French to test or try as way for him to express his ideas.
Columbus was a map maker, seaman, and deeply religious. On his first voyage, he discovered the Americas, but until his death he insisted that he had reached Asia. On his second voyage he subjigated Hispanola.
Ferdinand Magellan was comissioned to find a direct route to the southast coast of Asia. Although he began with about 5 ships and 270 men, only 1 ship returned to Portugual and made a small profit in spices. Magellan's crew (Magellan was killed) were the first to circomnavigate the globe.
Shakespeare was a Rennaissance man, a man of all trades, in his deep aprehciation of classic litterature, individualism, and humanism.
Vasco de Gama
De Gama commanded a fleet of 4 ships in a search for a sea route to the Indian Ocean Trade. De Gama's ship rouded the cape and sailed up the east coast of Africa, in 1497.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator supported the study of geography and navigation, as well as annual expeditions down the Western Coast of Africa. Although Henry never sailed, his financial support and enthusiasm for discovery allowed the Portuguese to continue exploring after original failings.
Hernando Cortez crossed from Hispanola to mainland Mexico with 600 men, 17 horses, and 10 cannons and took over Tenochtitlán and much of the Aztec empire in less than 2 years (see Tenochtitlán)
Francisco Pizzarro was a conquistador who advanced along the Andes to the Inca Empire. The Inca's ruler, Atauhualpa, was ticked, captured, ransomed, and killed leaving violence, wich was brought under Spanish conquest by the 1570's.
Atlantic Economy was supportd by trade between the "old" and "new" worlds. The "old" world mostly traded manufactured goods for raw matterials from the new world.
The Encounter between the "old" and "new" worlds caused massive death due to disease in conquest in the "new" world and more goods for both the "old" and "new" worlds.
Absolutism is when kings claimed that they were chosen by God and they were responsible to God alone. They claimed exclusive power to make and enforce laws, denying any other institution or group authority to check their power. Absolute Monarchy was prominent in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Soverenty is when a state posses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and use of force within bounderies. The state's law touches alll people. In a sovereign state no systems of courts compete with state courts in the dispensation of justice and private armies are outstripped by the state army.
The popular revolts were Bread Revolts turned into armed uprising due to the increased pressures of taxation and warfare. Rebels often demanded fair prices, fair taxes, and participation of municipal government. The limmitations of both royal and monicipal governements gave leverage to the revolts. During the mid 1600's these revolts were common in England, France, Spain, Portugual, and Italy.
Intendants wre royal commissioners. These royal intendents held a comission to preform specific tasks (financial, judicial, and policy). After 1634 in the 32 généralities (districts). They were usually formthe newer judicial nobility.
Fronde means "catapult" or "slighshot". Frondiers were street urchins who threw mud at the carriages of the rich. The word, Fronde, was latter used for individuals and groups who opposed the government during the rebellion that began with the Robe Nobility rejecting a proposal by Anne and Mazarin, then having their salaries taken back and enventually included other nobles as well.
Mercantilism is the regulation of economic activities by the state. In mercantilism, a nation's international power is theoretically based upon it's wealth espeacially in gold (see bollionism). This necesitated government controll to secure the largest portion of the resource.
Bullionism is the measuring of the wealth of a state by its gold suppy. This was the basis for mercantilism and the gold standard.
Quinto is the portion (1/5) of the precious metals mined in South America that were claimed by the Spanish crown. 25% of Spanish income was from gold and silver and mining was the most important industry in South America.
Constitutionalism is the limmitation of government by law and has an implied balance between the authority and power of the government and rights and liberties of the people. The government has a constitution either written or unwritten that it is required to follow.