Chapter 10 - Chemistry

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Chemistry

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclei with smaller masses that combine to form one nucleus with a larger mass.

Lipid

Organic compound that contains many carbon-hydrogen bonds but few carbon-oxygen bonds.

Acid

Tastes sour and turns blue litmus paper pink, pH is less than 7.

Product

Substance shown on the right side of a chemical equation.

Carbohydrate

Body's main energy source, especially in respiration. Sugar is an example.

Nuclear Fission

Splitting nucleus into smaller pieces.

Base

pH value is greater than 7, tastes bitter, turns litmus paper blue, and may be slippery.

Reactant

Substance that's present before a chemical reaction starts.

Protein

Amino acids are combined to make a larger molecule.

Indicator

A substance that changes color as pH of solution changes.

Alkali metal

Element in the far left column of the periodic table.

Chain reaction

Process in which the products keep the process going.

Chemical bond

Force that holds two atoms together.

Chemical Reaction

Process in which a substance is transformed into a new substance.

Exothermic

Process that releases energy and there is an increase in temperature.

Neutralization

Process that produces water and salt.

Noble gas

Element in the far right column of the periodic table.

Plastic

A synthetic organic compound.

Radiation

Alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.

Starch

Natural organic compound.

Isotope

Protons are a different number than the neutrons.

Chemical reaction examples

Change in color, formation of gas, heat.

Endothermic

Needs constant energy to continue, usually a decrease in temperature.

Metals

Natural substances or formed from two natural substances.

Balanced equation

Equal numbers of atoms on both sides of the equation.

Organic compounds

Contain carbon and most of the time they contain hydrogen and oxygen too.

Diamonds

Substance made from carbon.

Synthesis reaction

New compound formed when added together.

Replacement reaction

Compound formed put atoms in different order.

Decomposition reaction

Simpler substances are formed.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Light and soft metals like calcium and magnesium.

Alkali Metals

Soft and extremely reactive like sodium, lithium and potassium.

Transition Metals

Hard and shiny metals like copper, iron, gold, nickel and zinc.

Electrolyte

Conducts Electricity when dissolved in water.

Radioactive tracers

Used to detect cancer tumors.

Metalloids

Silicon, boron and arsenic. Have properties similar to metals and nonmetals.

Nobel gases

Do not react naturally with other elements, like argon, neon and xenon.

Physical change

Substance does not change chemically, like sugar water, cutting hair, making trail mix.

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