Central nervous system
Brain and spinal chord
Peripheral nervous system
Nerves that extend to the outlying parts of the body
Autonomic nervous system
Subdivision of peripheral nervous system
Branching projection of neuron
Forms myelin outside the central nervous system
Also known as "efferent"
Nodes of Ranvier
Indentations between adjacent Schwann cells
Groups of wrapped axons
Tough sheath that covers the whole nerve
Axon - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Special type of supporting cells - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Astrocytes - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Sensory - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Conduct impulses - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Forms the myelin sheath around central nerve fibers - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Phagocytosis - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Efferent - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Multiple sclerosis - Neuron or Neuroglia?
Neurilemma - Neuron or Neuroglia?
The simplest kind of reflex are is a ____-____ ____.
two - neuron arc
Three-neuron arcs consist of all three kinds of neurons, ____, ____, and ____ ____.
sensory, interneurons, and motor neurons
Impulse condition in a reflex arc normally starts in ____.
A ____ is the microscopic space that seperates the axon of one neuron from the dendrites of another neuron.
A ____ is the response to impulse conduction over reflex arcs.
Contraction of a muscle that causes it to pull away from an irritating stimulus is known as the ____ ____.
A ____ is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.
All ____ lie entirely within the gray matter of the central nervous system.
In a patellar reflex, the nerve impulses that reach the quadriceps muscle (the effector) result in the classic "____ - ____" reponse.
knee - jerk
____ ____ forms the H-shaped inner core of the spinal cord.
Nerve impulses (do or do not) continually race alone every nerve cell's surface.
When a stimulus acts on a neuron, it (increases or decreases) the permeability of the stimulated point of its membrane to sodium ions.
An inward movement of positive ions leaves (a lack or an excess) of negative ions outside.
The plasma membrane of the (presynaptic or postsynaptic) neuron makes up a portion of the synpase.
A synpatic knob is a tiny bulge at the end of the (presynaptic or postsynaptic) neuron's axon.
Acetycholine is an example of a (neurotransmitter or protein molecule receptor).
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow neurons to (communicate or reproduce) with one another.
Neurotransmitters are distributed (randomly or specifically) into groups of neurons.
Catecholamines may play a role in (sleep or reproduction).
Endorphins and enkephalins are neurotransmitters that inhibit conduction of (fear or pain) impulses.
The portion of the brain stem tht joints the spinal cord to the brain is the:
Which one the following is not a function of the brain stem?
Containment of centers for speech and memory
Which one of the following is not part of the diecephalon?
ADH is produced by the:
Which of the following is not true about the hypothalamus?
All of the above are true.
Which of the following parts of the brain helps in the association of sensations with emotions and also aids in the arousal or alerting mechanism?
Which of the following is not true of the cerebrum?
Its grooves are called gyri.
Which one of the following is not a function of the cerebrum?
All of the above are functions of the cerebrum.
The area of the cerebrum responsible for the perception of sound lies in the ____ lobe.
Visual perception is location in the ____ lobe.
Which one of the following is not a function of the cerebellum?
Associates sensations with emotions
Within the interior of the cerebrum are a few islands of gray matter known as:
A cerebrovascular accident is commonly referred to as:
Parkinson's disease is a disease of the:
The largest section of the brain is the:
The spinal cord is approximately 24 -15 inches long. T or F?
F - 17 or 18 inches long
The spinal cord ends at the bottom of the sacrum. T or F?
F - first lumbar vertebra
The extension of the meninges beyond the cord is convenient for performing CAT scans without danger of injuring the spinal cord. T or F?
F - lumbar punctures
Bundles of myelinated nerve fibers (dendrites) make up the white outer coulums of the spinal cord. T or F?
F - spinal tracts
Ascending tracts conduct impulses up the cord to the brain and descending tracts conduct impulses down the cord from the brain. T or F?
Tracts are functional organizations in that all the axons that compose a tract serve several functions. T or F?
F - one general function
A loss of sensation caused by spinal cord injury is called paralysis. T or F?
F - anesthesia
12 pairs - Cranial or Spinal?
Dermatone - Cranial or Spinal?
Vagus - Cranial or Spinal?
Shingles - Cranial or Spinal?
31 pairs - Cranial or Spinal?
Optic - Cranial or Spinal?
C1 - Cranial or Spinal?
Plexus - Cranial or Spinal?
Autonomic nervous sysytem
Regulates body's involuntary functions
Motor neurons that make up the ANS
Conduct impulses between the spinal cord and a ganglion
Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses
Divisions of ANS
Somatic nervous system
Dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the:
Gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord
Which of the following statements is not correct?
Sympathetic preganglionic axons pass along the dorsal root of certain spinal nerves.
Another name for the parasympathetic nervous system is:
Which of the following statements is not correct?
Very few sympathetic preganglionic axons synpase with postganglionic neurons
Sympatheitc stimulation usually results in:
Response by numerous organs
Parasympathetic stimulation frequently resuts in:
Response by only one organ
Constricts pupils - Sympathetic or Parasympathetic?
Produces "goose pimples" - Symp or Para?
Increases sweat secretion - Symp or Para?
Increases secretion of digestive juices - Symp or Para?
Constricts blood vessels - Symp or Para?
Slows heartbeat - Sym or Para?
Relaxes baldder - Symp or Para?
Increases epinephrine secretion - Symp or Para?
Increases peristalsis - Symp or Para?
Stimulates lens for near vision - Symp or Para?
Sympatheitc preganglionic axons release the neurotransmitter ____.
Axons that release norepinephrine are classified as ____ ____ .
Axons that release acetylcholine are classified as ____ ____.
The function of the autonomic nervous system is to regulate the body's involuntary functions in ways that maintain or restore ___.
Your ___ ___ is determined by the combined forces of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
According to some physiologists, meditation leads to ____ sympathetic activity and changes opposite to those of the "fight or flight" response.
Bundles of axons located within the CNS
Transmits impulses toward the cell body
Neurons that conduct impulses from a ganglion
Transmits impulses away from the cell body
Peripheral nervous system (abbreviation)
Peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite
Two neuron arc (two words)
Cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system
Area of brain stem
Fatty substance found around some nerve fibers
Where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another
Which of the following conducts impulses toward the cell body?
The outer cell membrane of a Schwann cell is called the
The myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord is produced by the:
The simplest kind of reflex arc is a(n):
A ganglion is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the:
Each synaptic knob vesicle contains a very small quantity of a chemical compound called a:
Which of the following is located in the brain stem?
Medulla, oblongata, Pons, and Midbrain - all of the above
Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?
Regulation of body temperature
Which of the following is not true regarding the meninges?
The pia mater resembles a "cobweb" and the name comes from the Greek word for spider.
The autonomic nervous system consists of certain motor neurons that conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brain stem to the:
Cardiac muscle tissue, Smooth muscle tissue, and Glandular epithelial tissue - all of the above
Sympathetic nervous system
"Fight or flight"
Parasympathetic nervous system
gathering of information
interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed
response to integrated stimuli (activates muscles or glands)
Nerve fibers that carry information to CNS
Nerve fibers that carry impulses way from CNS
A stimulus depolarizes the neuron's membrane
- allows sodium to flow inside membrane
- exchange of ions initiates action potential in neuron
- potassium ions rush out of neuron after sodium ions rush in
- required ATP
Nerve Impulse Propagation
- impulses travel faster when fibers have myelin sheath - "jumps"
gap between adjacent neurons
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
excludes harmful substances
"water of the brain"
Ganglia = "___ ___"