Anatomy: Chapter 8 - The Nervous System

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Sense Organ


Central nervous system

Brain and spinal chord

Peripheral nervous system

Nerves that extend to the outlying parts of the body

Autonomic nervous system

Subdivision of peripheral nervous system


Branching projection of neuron

Schwann cell

Forms myelin outside the central nervous system

Motor neuron

Also known as "efferent"

Nodes of Ranvier

Indentations between adjacent Schwann cells


Groups of wrapped axons


Tough sheath that covers the whole nerve

Axon - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Special type of supporting cells - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Astrocytes - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Sensory - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Conduct impulses - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Forms the myelin sheath around central nerve fibers - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Phagocytosis - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Efferent - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Multiple sclerosis - Neuron or Neuroglia?


Neurilemma - Neuron or Neuroglia?


The simplest kind of reflex are is a ____-____ ____.

two - neuron arc

Three-neuron arcs consist of all three kinds of neurons, ____, ____, and ____ ____.

sensory, interneurons, and motor neurons

Impulse condition in a reflex arc normally starts in ____.


A ____ is the microscopic space that seperates the axon of one neuron from the dendrites of another neuron.


A ____ is the response to impulse conduction over reflex arcs.


Contraction of a muscle that causes it to pull away from an irritating stimulus is known as the ____ ____.

withdrawal reflex

A ____ is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.


All ____ lie entirely within the gray matter of the central nervous system.


In a patellar reflex, the nerve impulses that reach the quadriceps muscle (the effector) result in the classic "____ - ____" reponse.

knee - jerk

____ ____ forms the H-shaped inner core of the spinal cord.

gray matter

Nerve impulses (do or do not) continually race alone every nerve cell's surface.

do not

When a stimulus acts on a neuron, it (increases or decreases) the permeability of the stimulated point of its membrane to sodium ions.


An inward movement of positive ions leaves (a lack or an excess) of negative ions outside.

an excess

The plasma membrane of the (presynaptic or postsynaptic) neuron makes up a portion of the synpase.


A synpatic knob is a tiny bulge at the end of the (presynaptic or postsynaptic) neuron's axon.


Acetycholine is an example of a (neurotransmitter or protein molecule receptor).


Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow neurons to (communicate or reproduce) with one another.


Neurotransmitters are distributed (randomly or specifically) into groups of neurons.


Catecholamines may play a role in (sleep or reproduction).


Endorphins and enkephalins are neurotransmitters that inhibit conduction of (fear or pain) impulses.


The portion of the brain stem tht joints the spinal cord to the brain is the:


Which one the following is not a function of the brain stem?

Containment of centers for speech and memory

Which one of the following is not part of the diecephalon?


ADH is produced by the:


Which of the following is not true about the hypothalamus?

All of the above are true.

Which of the following parts of the brain helps in the association of sensations with emotions and also aids in the arousal or alerting mechanism?


Which of the following is not true of the cerebrum?

Its grooves are called gyri.

Which one of the following is not a function of the cerebrum?

All of the above are functions of the cerebrum.

The area of the cerebrum responsible for the perception of sound lies in the ____ lobe.


Visual perception is location in the ____ lobe.


Which one of the following is not a function of the cerebellum?

Associates sensations with emotions

Within the interior of the cerebrum are a few islands of gray matter known as:

Basal ganglia

A cerebrovascular accident is commonly referred to as:

A stroke

Parkinson's disease is a disease of the:

Cerebral nuclei

The largest section of the brain is the:


The spinal cord is approximately 24 -15 inches long. T or F?

F - 17 or 18 inches long

The spinal cord ends at the bottom of the sacrum. T or F?

F - first lumbar vertebra

The extension of the meninges beyond the cord is convenient for performing CAT scans without danger of injuring the spinal cord. T or F?

F - lumbar punctures

Bundles of myelinated nerve fibers (dendrites) make up the white outer coulums of the spinal cord. T or F?

F - spinal tracts

Ascending tracts conduct impulses up the cord to the brain and descending tracts conduct impulses down the cord from the brain. T or F?


Tracts are functional organizations in that all the axons that compose a tract serve several functions. T or F?

F - one general function

A loss of sensation caused by spinal cord injury is called paralysis. T or F?

F - anesthesia

12 pairs - Cranial or Spinal?

Cranial nerves

Dermatone - Cranial or Spinal?

Spinal nerves

Vagus - Cranial or Spinal?

Cranial nerves

Shingles - Cranial or Spinal?

Spinal nerves

31 pairs - Cranial or Spinal?

Spinal nerves

Optic - Cranial or Spinal?

Cranial nerves

C1 - Cranial or Spinal?

Spinal nerves

Plexus - Cranial or Spinal?

Spinal nerves

Autonomic nervous sysytem

Regulates body's involuntary functions

Autonomic neurons

Motor neurons that make up the ANS

Preganglionic neurons

Conduct impulses between the spinal cord and a ganglion

Visceral effectors

Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses

Sympathetic system

Divisions of ANS

Somatic nervous system

Voluntary actions

Dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the:

Gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord

Which of the following statements is not correct?

Sympathetic preganglionic axons pass along the dorsal root of certain spinal nerves.

Another name for the parasympathetic nervous system is:


Which of the following statements is not correct?

Very few sympathetic preganglionic axons synpase with postganglionic neurons

Sympatheitc stimulation usually results in:

Response by numerous organs

Parasympathetic stimulation frequently resuts in:

Response by only one organ

Constricts pupils - Sympathetic or Parasympathetic?

Parasympathetic control

Produces "goose pimples" - Symp or Para?

Sympathetic control

Increases sweat secretion - Symp or Para?

Sympathetic control

Increases secretion of digestive juices - Symp or Para?

Parasympathetic control

Constricts blood vessels - Symp or Para?

Sympathetic control

Slows heartbeat - Sym or Para?

Parasympathetic control

Relaxes baldder - Symp or Para?

Sympathetic control

Increases epinephrine secretion - Symp or Para?

Sympathetic control

Increases peristalsis - Symp or Para?

Parasympathetic control

Stimulates lens for near vision - Symp or Para?

Parasympathetic control

Sympatheitc preganglionic axons release the neurotransmitter ____.


Axons that release norepinephrine are classified as ____ ____ .

adrenergic fibers

Axons that release acetylcholine are classified as ____ ____.

cholinergic fibers

The function of the autonomic nervous system is to regulate the body's involuntary functions in ways that maintain or restore ___.


Your ___ ___ is determined by the combined forces of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

heart activity

According to some physiologists, meditation leads to ____ sympathetic activity and changes opposite to those of the "fight or flight" response.


Bundles of axons located within the CNS


Transmits impulses toward the cell body


Neurons that conduct impulses from a ganglion




Pia mater


Nerve cells


Transmits impulses away from the cell body


Peripheral nervous system (abbreviation)


Peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite


Two neuron arc (two words)

reflex arc



Cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system


Area of brain stem


Fatty substance found around some nerve fibers


Where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another


Which of the following conducts impulses toward the cell body?


The outer cell membrane of a Schwann cell is called the


The myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord is produced by the:


The simplest kind of reflex arc is a(n):

Two-neuron arc

A ganglion is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the:


Each synaptic knob vesicle contains a very small quantity of a chemical compound called a:


Which of the following is located in the brain stem?

Medulla, oblongata, Pons, and Midbrain - all of the above

Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?

Regulation of body temperature

Which of the following is not true regarding the meninges?

The pia mater resembles a "cobweb" and the name comes from the Greek word for spider.

The autonomic nervous system consists of certain motor neurons that conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brain stem to the:

Cardiac muscle tissue, Smooth muscle tissue, and Glandular epithelial tissue - all of the above

Multiple sclerosis

Myelin disorder


Corpus callosum



Cerebrospinal fluid


Cranial nerves


Spinal nerves

31 pairs

Autonomic neurons

Visceral effectors

Sympathetic nervous system

"Fight or flight"

Parasympathetic nervous system

Slows heartbeat


Parkinson's disease

Sensory input

gathering of information


interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed

Motor input

response to integrated stimuli (activates muscles or glands)

Sensory (afferent)

Nerve fibers that carry information to CNS

Motor (efferent)

Nerve fibers that carry impulses way from CNS


Voluntary muscles


Involuntary muscles


A stimulus depolarizes the neuron's membrane
- allows sodium to flow inside membrane
- exchange of ions initiates action potential in neuron

Action potential

- potassium ions rush out of neuron after sodium ions rush in
- required ATP

Nerve Impulse Propagation

- impulses travel faster when fibers have myelin sheath - "jumps"

Synaptic cleft

gap between adjacent neurons

Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)

excludes harmful substances


"water of the brain"

Ganglia = "___ ___"

junction box

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