Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts.
Branch of science that studies body functions.
System functions: Protective covering, regulates body temperature and water loss, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes chemicals and excretes some wastes.
System functions: Produce movement, maintain posture, stabilize joints, and generate heat.
System functions: Shape, support, and protect, acts as levers to create body movement, house blood cells producing tissue, and store inorganic salts.
System functions: React to the environment and send signals.
The maintenance of a stable internal environment. Often maintained by negative feedback.
What are dorsal and ventral cavities?
Includes the cranial cavity and vertebral cavity.
Includes the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity.
sagittal, transverse, coronal
Three types of planes:
Lengthwise cut dividing the body into right and left portions.
Lengthwise cut dividing the body into equal right and left portions.
Cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Above a body part.
Below a body part.
In front of a body part.
Behind a body part.
Towards the middle of the body or part.
Towards the side of the body or part.
Close to a body part.
Far from a body part.
On the surface of the body.
Lying beneath the skin (closer to middle of body).
The study of the microscopic structure of tissues.
Major functions: protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion.
Major function: secretion.
Merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine glands
Types of glandular epithelium.
Glands that release fluid through exocytosis.
Glands that release cellular product by pinching off the free end of the cell.
Glands that secrete the entire cell full of the secretory product.
Tissue that binds organs, protects organs, supports, and transports.
Protein fibers that hold onto tightly packed cells to make epithelial tissue.
Single layer of thin, flat cells located in the air sacs of lungs and lines blood vessels.
Single layer of cube-shaped cells located on kidney tubules, ovaries, and ducts of glands.
Single layer of elongated, column-shaped cells located in uterus, stomach, and intestines.
Single layer of elongated cells that appears to be more than one layer located in the lining of respiratory passages.
stratified squamous epithelium
Consists of many layers of cells with flat cells on the outer layers such as the linings of oral cavity, throat, vagina, and cavity.
stratified cuboidal epithelium
Consists of 2-3 layers of cubed-shaped cells located in mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas.
stratified columnar epithelium
Consists of a top layer of elongated cells, and lower layers of cube-shaped cells located in the vas deferens and pharynx.
Consists of many layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells located in bladder, ureters, and urethra.
Loose connective tissue
Type of connective tissue that binds organs together and holds tissue fluids. Located beneath the skin, between muscles, and beneath epithelial tissue.
Type of connective tissue that protects, insulates, and stores fat in droplets inside the cells. Located beneath the skin, around kidneys, behind eyes, and on heart.
Reticular connective tissue
Type of connective tissue that is composed of thin, collagenous fibers and cells in a fluid-gel matrix. Located in walls of liver, spleen, and lymphatic organs.
dense connective tissue
Type of connective tissue that binds organs together. Located in tendons, ligaments, and the dermis of the skin.
elastic connective tissue
Type of connective tissue that supports protects, and provides a flexible framework. Located in the walls of arteries and airways.
Type of connective tissue that is rigid, provides protection, framework, and absorbs shock. Located at the ends of bones, ears, nose, between vertebrae, and knee.
Type of connective tissue that supports, protects, provides a framework for muscle attachment. Located in the skeleton and ear.
Type of connective tissue that transports gases, nutrients, and wastes. Located within the blood vessels.
Type of membrane that is thin, sheet-like, and cover body surfaces.
Type of membrane that lines body cavities that lack an opening to the outside. Lines thorax and abdomen.
Type of membrane that lines cavities and tubes open to the outside. Lines nose, mouth, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Type of membrane that is made up of connective tissue and lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints. Lacks an epithelial layer.
Type of membrane that is an epithelial membrane commonly called skin. Contains epidermis and dermis.
Membrane that separates the epidermis and the dermis.
Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
List the layers of the skin.
Layer of skin that is made up of stratified squamous cells.
Layer of skin that is made up of dense connective tissue and smooth muscle tissue.
Layer of skin that contains adipose tissue and binds skin to underlying organs.
Layer of skin that lacks blood vessels and has five layers.
Layer of skin containing dermal papillae, blood vessels, hair follicles, and sebaceous and sweat glands.
Layer of skin that contains that major blood vessels that supply the skin.
Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
List the types of muscle tissue.
Type of muscle tissue that attaches to bones and are voluntary.
Type of muscle that is involuntary, lacks striations, and is found in the stomach, intestines, uterus, and blood vessels.
Type of muscle that is involuntary, striated, and found in the heart.
Type of skin protein that hardens cells.
Type of skin protein that makes up the yellow, elastic fibers of connective tissue.
Type of skin protein that is in the white fibers of connective tissues and in bone matrix.
Type of skin protein that is a dark pigment protecting the skin and hair.
Type of bone cell that is mature.
Type of bone cell that is dividing and forms bone.
Type of bone cell that destroys bone.
Compact and spongy bone
The two types of bone tissue.
Bone tissue that is dense and forms around the central canal to make osteons.
Bone tissue that is small, needle-like, keeps us light, and allows blood vessels to go through.
Type of bone that is long and has a shaft with two heads at the ends. Mostly compact bone, but has spongy bone at the ends.
The process by which hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone.
Bone that is the anterior portion of cranium and roof of orbits
Bone that is side of skull and base of cranium.
Bones that make up the cheek bones.
U-shaped bone in the neck that supports the tongue.
The lower jaw that is the only moveable bone in the skull.
Bone that makes up the back of the skull. Foramen magnum runs through it.
Bone that is the upper jaw and makes up the hard palate.
Bone that forms the upper arm and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula.
Bone that is the lateral aspect of the forearm.
Bone that is the medial aspect of the forearm.
Eight small bones of the wrist.
Five bones that make up the framework of the palm.
Bones that make up the fingers: three in each finger, two in thumb.
Bone that is part of the thorax. Upper manubriam that articulates with the clavicle. Middle body.
Twelve bones that are attached to each thoracic vertebrae.
Series of small bones that make up the back bone.
Collarbone in the pectoral girdle.
Shoulder bone in the pectoral girdle
Curved bone at the base of the pelvic girdle.
Upper crests of the pelvic girdle.
Pair of bones forming the front of the pelvic girdle.
Lower limb bone that is the thigh bone and longest bone.
Lower limb bone that is the shin bone. Medial lower leg bone.
Lower limb bone that is lateral to the tibia.
Seven small bones in the ankle.
Elongated bones that form the arch of the foot.
Three bones that make up the toes.
Repeating patterns created by striations along the fiber. I bands are made of actin, A bands are made of myosin.
sliding filament mechanism
Mechanism that occurs when actin filaments are pulled inward by myosin cross-bridges to shorten muscle fibers, making a contraction.
Motor neuron axons join the skeletal muscle at these.
Muscle cell membrane.
The cytoplasm containing nuclei, mitochondria, and myofibrils.
Part of the muscle that is composed of protein filaments, myosin, and actin.
Dendrites, axons, Schwann cells, and Myelin Sheath
Parts of a Neuron
Astrocytes, oligodendroytes, microglia, ependyma
Types of neuroglia
Neuroglia that is star-shaped and aid in healing brain injury.
Neuroglia that form the myelin in the brain and spinal cord.
Neuroglia that support neurons and phagocytize bacteria and cell debris.
Neuroglia that regulate the composition of cerebrospinal fluid.
Axons end in synoptic knob at terminal, separated from the synaptic cleft.
Structure of a synapse.
Resting membrane potential
The difference in electrical charge between two points is the potential difference. Usually -70 mVolts.
Mechanism of the action potential.
Dura mater, arachnoid matter, pia mater
Name the meninges layers.
Specialized capillaries of the pia mater that make cerebrospinal fluid.
Clear fluid with high sodium ions and low glucose and potassium concentration, compared to other body fluids.