Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Art

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Egyptian Tomb Art

5000 BC to 300 AD this is a painting, a relief sculpture. The purpose is aesthetic, religious, and storytelling. Most Egyptian tomb art depicted stories of gods of pharaohs and were painted or carved in the tombs of important figures such as pharaohs. They were painting and carved into the walls.

Egyptian Relief Art

This is a low-relief sculpture, sculpted during the Armana period of Egyptian dynasty. They are sometimes painted and are on the walls of Egyptian tombs. The purpose is political, and history. The sculpture is portraying Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family. It is showing Akhenaten's power, as he is larger and closer to the gods than the rest of his family. It is important because it displays Egyptian hierarchy, showing how important they believed the pharaohs and the gods to be.

Bust of Queen Nefertiti

This is a bust of Queen Nefertiti. This is believed to have been sculpted in 1345 BC by Thutmose. It was found on December 6th 1912. Because of the bust, Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women in the ancient world, and an icon of female beauty. The purpose is aesthetic and history. It is sculpted of limestone and painted over with layers of stucco (a material made of aggregate, a binder, and water.)

Egyptian Jewelry

This Egyptian Jewelry was constructed anywhere from 2950 BC to 395 BC. It's purpose is aesthetic and religion. Their religion was greatly reflected in their jewelry motifs. Jewelry was also a symbol of wealth and status. It was also used as protection in afterlife, and was often buried with the pharaoh when he died. Jewelry was often made of gold, the metal of choice in ancient Egypt. They also incorporated many gems into their jewelry such as jasper, lapis lazuli, and malachite.

King Tut Funeral Mask

This Egyptian style funeral mask is the one of King Tutankmun. The child king died when he was eighteen and was placed over the face of the young pharaoh when he died. It was created in approximately 1323 BC. The king's funeral mask is made of gold inlaid with color glass. It stands 54 centimeters high. The emblems on it (vultures, cobras, and falcons) represent the two lands of Upper and Lower Egypt. Its purpose is history and aesthetic.

Pyramids of Giza

The Great Pyramids (tombs) located just outside of Giza were constructed around 2580 BC. It was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,000 years. The purpose is political and utilitarian, as the largest pyramid was originally constructed as a tomb for Pharaoh Khufu. The two smaller ones were meant as a tomb for nobles. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the World and the only one to remain largely intact. The Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million limestone blocks which most believe to be transported from nearby quarries.

The Parthenon

The Parthenon was a temple dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena (the goddess of wisdom.) Construction of the building began in 447 BC and it was completed in 438 BC, although decorations of the Parthenon continued on until 432 BC. It is the most important building in Classical Greece, and its sculptures are considered a high point in Greek art. Its purpose is history, and religious. In the 5th Century AD it was converted into a Christian church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. On September 26th 1687 an Ottoman Turk placed ammunition inside the building. The resulting explosion severely damaged the building and its sculptures. In 1975 the Greek government began an effort to restore the Parthenon.

Greek Column Orders

Greek architecture (570BC-560BC) The three Greek column orders are: Doric , Ionic, and Corinthian. The Doric is the simplest, and the Corinthian is the most ordinate. The purpose is aesthetic and history.

Archaic Greek Statues

This statue was constructed ca. 590-580 BC. It is one of the earliest freestanding marble statues. The type of sculpture is known as kouros (male youth) and are usually depicted nude with the left leg striding forward and the hands clench at the side. These types of statues are believed to have served as grave markers or as dedications in the sanctuary of a god. It is constructed of naxian marble. Although this Greek kouros looks stiff and unnaturalistic to us, it exemplifies two important aspects of Archaic Greek art—an interest in lifelike vitality and a concern with design. It's purpose could be utilitarian, aesthetic, or religious.

Kritios Boy

This sculpture was made during the Late Archaic period of ancient Greek sculpture. It is called "the first beautiful nude in art." With Kritios Boy, the Greek artist has mastered an understanding of how the different parts of the body act as a system. Its purpose is history. The Kritian boy is named that because it is attributed to Kritios. The statue is 3 feet 10 inches tall.

King Laocoon and His Sons

This sculpture was constructed in 25 BC. The statue is contributed to Pliny the Elder. It is made out of marble. It show the Trojan priest Laocoon and his sons being strangled by sea serpents. Its purpose is storytelling and aesthetic. The statue greatly influenced Italian Renaissance art. It is now at the Vatican Museums in Rome.

Nike of Somothrace

It is a 2nd century BC marble sculpture of the Greek goddess Nike. It is one of the most celebrated sculptures in the world. It is estimated to have been created around 190 BC. Its purpose is storytelling. It was created not only to honor the goddess but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery through its features which Greeks considered ideal beauty. It is held to be one of the great surviving masterpieces of sculpture from the Hellenistic period.

Black Figured Greek Vase

This style of ceramic was popular between the 7th and 5th century BC. It was one of the most modern styles for adorning antique Greek vases. Figures were painted on using shapes and colors reminiscent of silhouettes. Black-figure painting on vases was the first art style to give rise to a significant number of identifiable artists. The purpose is utilitarian because the vases were used to carry water or food.

Red Figured Greek Vase

It is one of the most important styles of Greek vase painting. It developed in Athens around 530 BC. It replaced black figured style within a few decades. Its modern name is based on the figural depictions in red colour on a black background, in contrast to the preceding black-figure style with black figures on a red background. Red figure vases were exported throughout Greece and far beyond. The purpose is utilitarian as they were used to transport and store things.

The Colosseum

This is an amphitheatre located in Rome, Italy. It is the largest building ever built in the Roman Empire. Construction began in 72 AD and was completed in 80 AD. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. It was capable of seating 50,000 spectators and in the Roman era it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. The building ceased to be used to entertain in the Medieval era and was reused for purposes such as housing, workshops, quarters for religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a religious shrine. The purpose is history.

The Pantheon

This example of Roman architecture, constructed in 126 AD, was a temple dedicated to all of the gods in ancient Rome. Its purpose is religious. It is located in Rome, Italy. It took 732 construction workers three years to construct the Pantheon because of its many features. The Pantheon's dome is the world's largest unenforced concrete dome.

Statue of Constantine

This was a colossal statue of the late Roman emperor Constantine the Great. The head, arms, and legs were carved from white marble while the rest of the body consisted of brick core and wooden framework. The purpose is political and history, the statue displayed Constantine's strength and power. It was constructed c. 312- 315 AD.

Bronze Statue of Marcus Aurelius

This ancient Roman statue is made of broAnze and stands 3.5 meters tall. The purpose is political, and the overall theme is one of power. The emperor is life size. The statue was erected in175 CE. Its original location is debated but it is now located in the Campidoglio, in Rome Italy.

Portrait Bust of Roman Man

This Roman marble statue was constructed in the 1st century BC. The Roman concept of virtue called for a serious, responsible, public bearing and courageous endurance in the field of battle. Honor came from age, and so these values are expressed in this sculpture. Roman funeral often involved a displaying of portraits of distinguished ancestors. The purpose is political because these sculptures advertised the subject's abilities in a public forum, and also elevated his family's standing in Roman society.

Pompeii Fresco from the Villa of Mysteries

This fresco is depicting a Bacchian rite. It survives largely undamaged by the eruption of Vesuvius. It is located in a Roman villa which lies some 400 meters northwest of Pompeii. It had to have been constructed sometime before the year 79 AD. It is a fresco, a painting on wet plaster. Its purpose is aesthetic.

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