Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Test 2 Questions and Answers

Which of the following is not one of the key characteristics of social interaction?

-Social interaction is central to all human social activity.
-People respond to a situation differently depending on what they think is at stake for them.
[Social interaction is similar across time and place.]
-People influence each other's behavior through interaction.
-Elements of social structure affect all interaction and can produce different personal outcomes.

Define Social Structure

An organized pattern of behavior that governs people's relationships

Keri is a mother, a parole officer, and a softball player. These positions make up Keri's

Status Set

_____ statuses are those that we cannot change, control or choose.

Ascribed

Achieved

statuses that we can change, control or choose through effort or actions.

Cameron was scheduled to work on Thursday from 9:00am until 3:00pm. His sociology final was scheduled for 2:00 pm. Cameron was likely experiencing

Role Conflict

"Human reality is socially constructed reality." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?

symbolic interaction

Define Social Exchange Theory

suggests that any social interaction between two people is based on each person's trying to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs.

"Interaction often involves a dominant-subordinate relationship." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?

Feminist Theory

Timothy and Kiley were asked to violate a norm by their sociology professor. They choose to go to the mall and use the up-escalator to go down and the down-escalator to go up. They watched the reactions of others and wrote a paper describing the experience. Which methodological tool were Timothy and Kiley using?

Ethnomethodology

"Actions speak louder than words." This statement represents which concept of social interaction?

nonverbal communication

In As You Like It, Shakespeare wrote that "All the world is a stage and all the men and women merely players." This illustrates which concept?

Dramaturgical Analysis

persons who interact with one another,persons who share a common identity, and persons who share a sense of belonging are all criteria for what?

Social Groups

_____ groups meet our expressive (or emotional) needs; _____ groups meet our instrumental (or task-oriented) needs.

Primary; secondary

Those that share a sense of identity and exclude and devalue outsiders are considered

In-Groups

_____ are those people who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as being different.

Out-Groups

A/n _____ is a group that shapes our behavior, values and attitudes, and influences who we'd like to be in the future.

Reference Group

Asch's studies, in which subjects were asked to match lines on cards, showed that

Group membership generates conformity

Define Groupthink

the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures. f. a decision-making process where an individual weighs group decisions against his/her own before making a decision.

What are Social Networks?

Webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.

_____ are webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.

Formal Organizations

Define Bureaucracy

a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people.

At the Barkley Company, there are forty employees. Addison is the President and CEO. Below her, Jack and Ross, are managers. The thirty-seven others work below the managers in the storeroom or on the show floor. Which of Weber's ideal characteristics does this exemplify?

Hierarchy of Authority

In applying to three colleges, Layla spent several days completing nearly identical forms. Each asked for her high school grades, roommate preferences, and parent's financial status. This is an example of which of the shortcomings of bureaucracies?

Bureaucratic Ritualism

In applying to three colleges, Layla spent several days completing nearly identical forms. Each asked for her high school grades, roommate preferences, and parent's financial status. This is an example of which of the shortcomings of bureaucracies?

Conflict Theory

Define Deviance

A behavior that violates expected rules or norms.

A/n _____ is a negative label that devalues a person and disqualifies him/her from full social acceptance.

Stigma

_____ refer(s) to the technique and strategies that regulate people's behavior in society.

Social Control

Define a Sanction

Rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.

Who would believe that deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure that maintain society?

Functionalists

Durkheim introduced the term anomie, but _____ elaborated on the concept to explain how social structure can create deviance.

Merton

According to Merton, Americans are taught to strive towards the "American Dream" of economic success. He called these aspirations

Cultural Goals

Henry's family was unable to pay their bills last month. He wanted the best for his family, but had a low-paying job. To "earn" some extra cash, be began selling fraudulent tickets at the Civic Center. According to Merton, Henry is a/n

Innovator

Harold started using drugs when he was 17. By the time Harold turned 20 he was living on the streets. According to Merton, Henry is a/n

Retreatist

Who asks why some deviant acts are defined as criminal while others are not.

Conflict Theorists

Conflict theorists often focus on which type of crime?

White Collar Crime

Mr. Davis, an accounting executive at Alpha Inc., participated in tax fraud for several years, which saved the company millions of dollars in taxes. Mr. Davis is guilty of

Corporate Crime

The symbolic interaction perspective suggests that people _____ deviant behavior.

Learn

The basic idea behind differential association theory is that

Most people learn deviant behavior through interaction

Define Labeling with Deviance

Society's reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining someone as deviant.

_____ deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law and can range from relatively minor offenses to serious offenses.

Primary

The criminal justice system relies on three major approaches to crime control. Which of the following is not one of these approaches?

[avoidance]
prevention
intervention
punishment
rehabilitation

Who is the global leader in the number of inmates per capita.

The U.S.

True or False- In the article "Code of the Street" by Elijah Anderson, he argues that interpersonal violence and aggression is part of the code of the street in inner cities poor neighborhood.

True

The conclusion in the article "The Impact of Internet Communications on Social Interaction" is that

face-to-face interaction is different from internet interaction.

The main topic in "Clique Dynamics" by Patricia Adler and Peter Adler is the study of _______.

In-Groups and Out-Groups

The article "The Social Organization of Toy Stores" by Christine Williams discussed about

race problem in the toy store. AND
gender problem in the toy store.

True or False- The main argument in article "The Medicalizaiton of Deviance" is that we redefine certain deviant behaviors as "illness" rather than as "badness", so that they are treated medically rather than punishment.

True

The main theoretical perspective used in article "The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison" by Jeffrey Reiman is what kind of perspective?

Conflict

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set